Publications 20

Title: A guide to grand-iury men diuided into two bookes: in the first, is the authors best aduice to them what to doe, before they bring in a billa vera in cases of witchcraft, with a Christian direction to such as are too much giuen vpon euery crosse to thinke themselues bewitched. In the second, is a treatise touching witches good and bad, how they may be knowne, euicted, condemned, with many particulars tending thereunto. By Rich. Bernard.
Prov 17:15, Deut 13:14
Imprint: London: Printed by Felix Kingston for Ed. Blackmore, and are to be sold at his shop at the great south dore of Pauls, 1627.
Date: 1627
Pages: [20], 267, [1]
Copy from: British Library
The book was reprinted in 1629 adn 1630.
The work is preceded by a 4 page dedication to 'The right honourable Sir John Walter, Knight, Lord chief Baron of his majesties court of exchequer and Sir John Denham, Knight, a worthy Baron of the same honourable court. The reverend and religious judges in this western circuit.' and another, slightly longer, 'To the right worshipful Gerard Wood, Doctor of Divinity, and Archdeacon of Wells and Arthur Duck, Doctor of the Civil Law and Chancellor to the Right Reverend Father the Lord Bishop of Bath and Wells' . There is also a six page sumary of the work after this.
John Walter lived 1565-1630, a judge and politician. An anecdote from Fuller says that when a colleague on the western circuit remarked ‘My Lord, you are not merry’, Walter supposedly replied ‘Merry enough, for a judge’. John Denham, father of the poet, lived 1559-1639. Wood became archdeacon in 1611, Duck lived 1580-1648.


Publications 19

Title: Rhemes against Rome: or, The remoouing of the gagg of the new Gospell, and rightly placing it in the mouthes of the Romists, by the Rhemists in their English translation of the Scriptures. Which counter-gagg is heere fitted by the industrious hand of Richard Bernard ...,
Imprint: London: printed by Felix Kingston, for Ed. Blackmore, and are to be sold at his shop at the great south doore of Pauls.
Date: 1626
No. pages: [16], 326 p.
Copy from: Cambridge University Library
The work is preceded by a four page dedication 'to the right worshipful and worthily honoured Sir Ralph Hopton, Knight of the Bath' and a four page advetisement for the Christian reader. Hopton lived 1598-1652. He was a west country MP and later played a prominent role in the civil wars.


Publications 18

Title: The isle of man: or, The legall proceeding in Man-shire against sinne. Wherein, by way of a continued allegorie, the chiefe malefactors disturbing both church and commonwealth, are detected and attached; with their arraignement, and iudiciall tryall, according to the laws of England.: A necessarie direction for waifaring Christians, not acquainted with those perillous wayes they must passe, before they happily arriue at their wished hauen. / By R.B. ...
Imprint: London,: Printed for Edw. Blackmore, at the great South doore of Pauls., 1626.
Date: 1626
Pages: [24], 287 p.
Notes: Dedication signed: Richard Bernard. Signatures: A-N12 (N12v blank). Marginal notes. Error in paging: p. 263 misnumbered 236.
Copy from: Folger Shakespeare Library
This is the first extant edition of at least 10 produced in Bernard's life time. Editions appeared in
1626, 1627 [2], 1628, 1629, 1630, 1632, 1634, 1635 and 1640 (all London). Subsequent editions appeared (all London unless otherwise marked) in 1648, 1658, 1659, 1668, 1674 (Glasgow), 1677 [2], 1683, 1719 (Boston), 1778 (Liverpool), 1803 (Bristol), 1851, 1976 and 1997.
The work is preceded by an 8 page dedication 'To the right worshipful Sir Thomas Thynne, knight, and to his religiously affected lady, the Lady Catherine Thinne' and one to the reader twice as long.
Sir Thomas Thynne was born before 1599 and was the son of Sir John Thynne and Joan Hayward. Catherine Lyle-Howard was his second wife. She was the daughter of Hon Charles Lyle-Howard.


Publications 17

Title: Looke beyond Luther: or An ansvvere to that question, so often and so insultingly proposed by our aduersaries, asking vs; where this our religion was before Luthers time? VVhereto are added sound props to beare vp honest-hearted Protestants, that they fall not from their sauing-faith. By Richard Bernard, of Batcombe in Sommersetshire.
Imprint: London: imprinted by Felix Kyngston, and are to be sold by Edmund Weauer, at his shop, at the great North-doore of Pauls, 1623.
Date: 1623
No. Pages: [8], 56 p.
Copy From: Folger Shakespeare Library. Copies also in Harvard University Library and British Library and second edition in Yale University Library.
The work is preceed by a four page dedication 'To the right worshipful Sir Walter Erle, Sir Clement Cotterel, knights, and to their virtuous Ladies'. Erle (1586–1665) was a politician 'renowned for his staunchly Calvinist religious views'. Cottrell is less well known.


Shorter Catechism - Redemption 2

Q. But as God made all will so Jesus Christ save us all?
A. No verily, many shall be damned, few shall be saved, Mat 7:13,14, only the elect, which take hold of Christ by a lively faith Jn 3:16,36; Mark 16:16.
Q. What is this lively faith?
A. It is a true persuasion of my heart, grounded upon God's promises, Eph 3:17; Rom 4:21, that Jesus Christ is given to me, Jn 3:16 and the mercies of his death and passion are as truly mine as if myself had wrought them, 2 Cor 5:21, Rom 8:1.
Q. How come you by this faith?
A. From my effectual calling by the word preached and the work of God's Spirit. Acts 14:48; Rom 10:14, 15; Eph 1:13.
Q. Where is set down the sum of your belief?
A. In my Creed, I believe in God the Father Almighty, etc.
Q. Are these a prayer or so to be used?
A. No: it teacheth me what to believe concerning God and his church.
Q. What good hath God's Church, the true believers above the rest of mankind?
A. They are in a state of grace, they have communion with Christ, and with one another, the forgiveness of sins, the glorious resurrection of the body and life everlasting.

Publications 16

Title: The seaven golden candlestickes Englands honour. The great mysterie of Gods mercie yet to come. With peace to the pure in heart aduising to vnitie among our selues. By Richard Bernard, minister at Batcombe in Somersetshire.
Imprint: London: Printed [by William Stansby] for Iohn Badge, dwelling in Pauls Church-yard at the signe of the Greene Dragon, 1621.
Date: 1621
Pages: [96] p
Notes: Miscellaneous treatises, each with caption title. Signatures: A4 B-H I4 (-A1,I4, blank?).
Copy from: Cambridge University Library

The four works are preceded by a dedication 'To the right honourable William Lord Cavendish Earl of Devonshire; John Lord Darcy, Baron of Meinell; John Lord Holleys Baron of Houghton' and 'To the right worshipful Sir Robert Philips, Sir John Horner, John Powlet and Robert Hopton, Justices of the Peace in Somerset'. Cavendish we have mentioned elsewhere but not the others.

Publications 15

Title: The good mans grace. Or His stay in all distresse. By Ric. Bernard
Imprint: London: Printed by Felix Kingston, 1621.
Date: 1621
Pages: [58] p.
Notes: On the Lord's prayer.
Signatures: A-B12 C6 (-A1, blank?).
Reproduction of the original in the Bodleian Library.
Copy from: Bodleian Library
Headed 'A brief exposition with observations on the Lord's Prayer' there is a brief dedication 'To the right worshipful his very good lady, the Lady Susanna Billingsley, and to the virtuous and Christianly affected Gentlewoman, Mistris Rebecca Strowde' and a preface.


Publications 14

Title: The fabulous foundation of the popedom: or A familiar conference between two friends to the truth Philalethes, and Orthologus shewing that it cannot be proued, that Peter was ever at Rome. VVhereunto is added a chronologicall description of Pauls peregrination with Peters travells, and the reasons why he could not be at Rome, that so the truth in one view may more fully and easily be seene of e-every one [sic]. 1 Thess 5:21 Prove all things, and hold fas that which is good.
Imprint: At Oxford: Printed by John Lichfield, and James Short, for William Spier, An. Dom. 1619.
Date: 1619
Pages: [8], 68 p.
Notes: Dedication signed: Richard Bernard. The chronologicall description is a folding leaf, init. R.B.B.. Imperfect; folding leaf lacking.
Copy from: Emmanuel College (University of Cambridge) Library
The text is preceded by a brief dedication to
'The right worshipful and reverend Mr Doctor Goodwin Dean of Christ Church and Vice-Chancellor of the University of Oxford'
'Mr Dr Prideaux his Majesty's Professor of Divinity and Rector of Exeter College' and
'Mr Dr Benefield, the Lady Margaret's professor of Divinity in the same university.'
(These men are William Goodwin (1555/6–1620), generous and moderate John Prideaux (1578–1650), Goodwin's son-in-law and later Bishop of Worcester, and Sebastian Benefield 1559—1630, who Spurgeon calls a 'Puritan and thorough Calvinist' when commending his massive commentary on Amos.)
There is also a dedication to the reader and a summary of 20 reasons why Peter never went to Rome.


Publications 13

Title: A key of knowledge for the opening of the secret mysteries of St Iohns mysticall Reuelation By Ric: Bernard ... The contents ar in the next page before the booke
Imprint: At London: Imprinted by Felix Kyngston, 1617
Date: 1617
Pages: [60], 351, [1] p.
Notes: The title page is engraved. Running title reads: The opening of S. Iohns mysticall Reuelation. "The engr. tp is possibly a cancel"
Copy from: Cambridge University Library
The work is preceded by a long series of dedications. The first is in Latin to the Bishop of Bath and Wells; then come more in English - a nine page one to the judges of the land and the inns of court; another (over 16 pages long) to the Justices of the Peace; another, over 8 pages 'to the worthies of our David' (military men) and one (13 pages) to the Christian reader.
Next comes a brief bibliography and a contents page. The work itself is in 4 parts.


Publications 12

Title: A weekes worke, and a worke for every weeke by R. B.
Imprint: London: Printed by Felix Kyngston, and are to be sold by Nathanael Newbery,
Date: 1616
Pages: [10], 179 p.
Notes: [Edition statement:] The third edition. Signatures: A6(-A1) B-2H12 I6. Title within ornamental border.
Copy from Bodleian Library
This edition is dedicated 'To the virtuous and religious ladies, the Lady Elizabeth Barkley of Bruton, the Lady Elizabeth Barkley of Yearlington and the Lady Ann Horner.' Subsequent editions appeared in 1628 and 1650 (both with an extra dedication 'To the right honorable lady, the lady Helen, Marchioness of Northampton') . His text is 1 John 2:1. The first of these ladies would be the grand daughter of Henry Carey. The very last was the widow of widow of William Parr, Marquess of Northampton.


Publications 11

Title: A staffe of comfort to stay the weake from falling very needfull for the afflicted. By Richard Bernard, preacher of Gods word; at Batcombe in Somersetshire. Art thou any way tempted, or troubled? reade, beleeue, and reioyce.
Imprint: London: Printed by Felix Kyngston, for Iohn Budge, and are to be sold at his shop, at the South doore of St. Pauls Church, 1616.
Date: 1616
Pages: [12], 250 p.
Copy from: Folger Shakespeare Library
The work is preceded by a 10 page dedication 'To the worshipful his good Christian friends, Mr James Bisse, and Mr Edward Bisse, Esquires: with his very kinde welwisher, Mr Robert Grove. To his loving and assured friends, Master John Bernard, and Mr Edward Bernard, both of Downside, loving brethren, constant in unity.'
James and Edward Bisse were brothers to Dr Philip Bisse, Archdeacon of Taunton, who was Bernard's predecesor at Batcombe. He 'purchased the advowson of Batcombe for one turn' and presented the living to Bernard in November 1613. Robert Grove (1634-96) was a prebendary of St Paul's and later Bishop of Chichester (1691). John Bernard is probably Bernard's father and Edward, his brother.

Publications 10

Title: Dauids musick: or Psalmes of that royall prophet, once the sweete singer of that Israel vnfolded logically, expounded paraphrastically, and then followeth a more particular explanation of the words, with manifold doctrines and vses briefly obserued out of the same. By R.B. and R.A. preachers of Gods word in Somersetshire. Zech 4:10 Who hath despised, etc. Also an inscription in Latin.
Other author: Richard Alleine Sr (d c 1655)
Imprint: At London: Imprinted by Felix Kyngston, 1616.
Date: 1616
Pages: [8], 124 p.
Notes: R.B. = Richard Bernard; R.A. = Richard Alleine (Senior not Junior)
Actually covers only Psalms 1-3.
Another issue of the edition with E. Weaver's name in the imprint.
Copy from: Cambridge University Library. Also one in Folger Shakespeare Library.
Richard Alleine ministered for 50 years at Ditcheat, not far from Batcombe. The work is preceded by a six page epistle to the Christian reader. There is also a short preface before the work on Psalms 1-3.


Publications 09

Title: Two twinnes: or Two parts of one portion of scripture. I. Is of catechising. II. Of the ministers maintenance. By Richard Barnard, preacher of the word of worship in Nottinghamshire. 1 Peter 5:2 Feed the flock, etc 1 Cor 9:11 If we sow unto you, etc.
Imprint: London: Printed [by T. Snodham] for George Norton, and are to be sould at his shop neare Temple-barre, 1613.
Date: 1613
No. pages: [4], 51, [1] p.
Copy from: Bodleian Library
The work is preceded by a two page dedication 'To his right worthy, much beloved and singularly approved good friend, Master James Riley'. Who Riley was we do not know. The text for the two sermons is Galatians 6:6.


Publications 08

Title: Plaine euidences The Church of England is apostolicall, the separation schismaticall. Directed against Mr. Ainsworth the Separatist, and Mr. Smith the Se-baptist: both of them seuerally opposing the booke called the Separatists schisme. By Richard Bernard, preacher of the word of God at Worsop. For truth and peace, by any indifferent judgement. Prov 24:21 My son, fear the Lord, etc Prov 24:27 Turn not to the right hand, etc. Set out by authoritie. Anno. 1610.
Imprint: [London]: Printed by T. Snodham for Edward Weauer, and William Welby, and are to be sould at their shops in Paules Church-yard, [1610]
Date: 1610
No. pages: [16], 338, [4] p.
Copy from: Emmanuel College (University of Cambridge) Library
The work is preceded by eight pages of Latin and a five and a half page preface in English. At the end of the work there is a three page index of topics and a one page index of texts. This book continues an argument in print begun with a previous work by Bernard. See here


Shorter Catechism - Redemption 1

Of man's redemption

Q. What are you in this case to do?
A. To cry unto God for mercy and seek for deliverance Lk 15;17, Ps 51:1, 2, etc

Q. Are you of yourself able, or is there any good in you to move God, to set you free?
A. No indeed, Rom 3:10, 7:18, Lk 17:10, 2 Cor 4:4, Eph 2:8,9

Q. Then who doth redeem you?
A. Only Jesus Christ Rom 7:25, 2 Cor 5:21, Rom 5:19, Gal 2:20, 3:13

Q. What is Jesus Christ?
A. He is the eternal Son of God, Mt 17:5, Heb 1:23, a king to govern us Ps 2:6, Mt 28:18 a priest to offer for us Ps 110:4 and a prophet to teach us, Dt 18:18, Isa 61:1, Mt 17:5

Q. What believe you concerning him in the articles of the creed?
A. I do believe that he was conceived by the Holy Ghost, etc.

Q. What is this to you?
A. I do persuade myself hereby, that his purity is for my corruption, his obedience for my transgression, his death for my debt and his ascension for my eternal salvation. 1 Cor 1:30, Phil 3:20

Publications 07

Title: Contemplative pictures with wholesome precepts. The first part: Of God. Of the diuell. Of goodnesse. Of badnesse. Of heauen: and of hell. By Richard Bernard.
Imprint: London: Printed by William Hall for William Welbie, and are to be sold at his shop in Pauls Church-yard at the signe of the Svvan, 1610.
Date: 1610
No. pages: [22], 134+ p.
Notes: Leaf A8 is a blank; Imperfect; all after page 34 lacking.
Copy from: Emmanuel College (University of Cambridge) Library
The work is preceded by a 17 page dedication 'To the right honorable Edmund Lord Sheffield, Knight of the most noble order of the garter, Lord President of his majesty's honourable council in the north and his higness' lieutenant there. And to the right honorable that his loving obedient Lady Ursula the Lady Sheffield.' 'To the right worshipful ladies, their honorable issue, the Lady Swift and the Lady Fairfax' dated November 6 and from Worksop. Sheffield appears to have lived 1565-1646 and married Ursula before 1581. He was the third Baron Sheffield and the first Earl Mulgrave. He was an admiral in the navy.


Publications 06

Title: The faithfull shepheard amended and enlarged: with the shepeards practise in preaching annexed thereunto: or his maner of feeding his flocke. Published by Richard Barnerd preacher of God's Word at Worsopp, Nottinghamshire Much in a little: see the contents. 2 Tim 2:15 Study to shew thyself, etc.
Imprint: London: Printed by Arnold Hatfield for Iohn Bill, 1609.
Date: 1609
No. pages: [12], 95, [5], 21, [1] p.
Notes: "The shepheards practise: or his maner of feeding his flocke" has separate pagination and dated title page; register is continuous.
Copy from: Bodleian Library
This is the first expansion of the 1607 work. It is preceded by a two page dedication this time 'to the right reverend father James by the providence of God Lord Bishop of Bath and Wells' and, as before, just over three pages 'to his brethren of the ministry, and the beloved readers' - the same man as before but now elevated to a bishopric.


Large Catechism 04

Q. What reasons have you to persuade yourself that this Scripture which we hold is the true Word of God and none other?
A. First, from the penmen being many and most of them simple and plain persons who do mutually consent setting down their own faults without partiality.
Secondly, from the matter, above natural men's reach, of man's creation, resurrection, last judgement, and of the Trinity in unity.
Thirdly, from the manner of speaking, peremptorily reproving or allowing without sinister respects.
Fourthly, from the effect, binding conscience, converting men to have even life itself, for God's glory.
Fifthly, the miraculous preservation thereof with punishment of such as seek to overthrow either it or the professors thereof.
Lastly, that it ascribes all glory to God, the main end which it aimeth at.

Q. What means must you use to come to the saving knowledge of this Word?
A. 1. Daily reading
2. Learning the catechism, the grounds of religion
3. Hearing the Word with mind and affection, both read and preached publicly by God’s ministers.
4. Meditation in mind to understand the doctrine gathered and in heart to affect the use made, after I have either read or heard it.
5. Conference by asking superiors and ministers, by reasoning with equals and teaching inferiors, all in reverence and humility, to understand that I know not, to be resolved in that I have forgotten.
6. Continual prayer with practice of it in my particular calling.

Shorter Catechism - Fall

Of mans fall and misery

Q. Are you now such a one by birth, as he was by creation?
A. Alas no: I am by nature full of sin, Ps 51:5, Job 25:4-6, Rom 3:9-19 and so most miserable, Job 14:1, 2, Rom 5:14, Eph 2:1-3, Rom 3:23, 2:8, 9 and to God detestable, Ps 11:5, Gal 3:10, Mt 7:23, 25:41.

Q. What is sin?
A. The breaking of God’s commandments, by thought, word or deed, 1 Jn 3:4

Q. How many commandments are there?
A. Ten Dt 10:4 divided into two tables Dt 4:13

Q. Which be the commandments?
A. I am the Lord thy God, etc. Ex 20, Dt 5,6

Q. Do these ten command or forbid but only what is there set down in them?
A. No, they command or forbid all the kinds contained under the same thing mentioned and all the causes with occasions thereunto, 1 Jn 3:15, Mt 5:28, 32

Q. Are they a prayer?
A. No, nor so to be used: they are a rule for me to live after and to teach me my duty to God and my neighbour. Dt 6, 31:12, Ps 119:105, Ecc 12:13, Mt 22:37, 39

Q. What is your duty towards God?
A. My duty towards God is to believe in him, to fear him and to love him, etc. 2 Chr 20:20, Ecc 12:13, Mt 22:37

Q. What is your duty towards your neighbour?
A. it is to love my neighbour as myself, etc. Mt 22:39, Rom13:9

Q. Can ye keep the commandments, and not offend God nor your neighbour?
A. No: I break them every day in thought, word and deed, hating both God and my neighbour by nature, Ps 14:1-3, Rom 8:7, 1:30, 2 Cor 3:5, Tit 3:3

Q. What is then now your state, and what deserve you by thus offending God?
A. I am in the state of corruption and do deserve God’s curse, which is eternal destruction of body and soul. Dt 27:26, Mt 25:41, 46, Gal 3:10

Shorter Catechism - Our creation

Of our Creation

Q. Of what did God make man?
A. His body was of dust, the woman's of Adam‘s rib, Gen 2:7

Q. What a one did God make him?
A. Both good. Gen 2:31 holy and righteous Gen 1:26, Eph 4:28, Col 3:9

Q.What was then mans estate and happiness?
A. It was the state of innocence, without sin or misery and to God was he acceptable Gen 1:27, 12:25 & 1:28

Publications 05

Title: The sinners safetie, if heere hee looke for assurance by Richard Barnerd, preacher of Gods Word at Worsop in Nottinghamshire. Col 3:1 If ye then be risen, etc.
Imprint: At London: Printed by H.L. for T.M. and Ionas Man, and are to be sold at his shoppe at the West doore of Paules, 1609.
Date: 1609
No. pages: [6], 100 p.
Notes: Dedication signed: Richard Bernard; Signatures: A4(-A1) B-G8 H2.; Includes marginal notes.
Copy from: Harvard University Library
Teh sermon is on 2 Peter 1:10 and is preceded by a four page dedication 'To the chiefe officers, the gentlemen domesticall attendants and to the rest of the familie of the most Reverend Father, Tobias, Lord Archbishop of Yorke his Grace'. This archbishop is Tobias Matthew (1546-1628). West county born and Oxford educated he became Archbishop, 1606, having been Dean (from 1583) Bishop (from 1595) of Durham.


Publications 04

Title: Christian advertisements and counsels of peace Also disswasions from the separatists schisme, commonly called Brownisme, which is set apart from such truths as they take from vs and other reformed churches, and is nakedly discouered, that so the falsitie thereof may better be discerned, and so iustly condemned and wisely auoided. Published, for the benefit of the humble and godlie louer of the trueth. By Richard Bernard, preacher of Gods word.
Reade (my friend) considerately; expound charitably; and iudge, I pray thee, without partialitie: doe as thou wouldst bee done unto. Philippians 3:16 In that whereunto, etc.
Imprint: At London: Imprinted by Felix Kyngston, 1608.
Date: 1608
No. pages: [16], 192+ p.
Notes: Answered the same year by Henry Ainsworth (1571-1622?) in Counterpoyson; in 1609 by John Smyth (d 1612) Paralleles, censures, observations Aperteyning: to three several writinges (ie 1. A letter to Bernard from Smyth 2. Bernard's book 3. Ainsworth's book) and in 1610 by John Robinson (1575?-1625) in A iustification of separation (this latter work available online here); Signatures: A-N O4.; Imperfect; all after N8 (page 192) lacking.
Copy from: Emmanuel College (University of Cambridge) Library
The work is preceded by around five pages of dedication 'to the right worshipfull and Christian professors, Sir George Saintpoll Knight, and to that vertuous Ladie Saintpoll, both his singular and ever good Benefactors' and a further five and a half 'to the godly reader'. A contents page reveals that the chief division of the work is between the counsels (1-20) and disswasions (the rest of the book). Lady St Paul is Frances Wray (d 1634) sister of Isabel who was married first to Sir George St Paul of Snarford (c 1562-1613).


Shorter Catechism - God

Q. How many things are needful for you to understand that you know both God and yourself?
A. These 6 things
1. Rightly to conceive of God, what he is by his word and works
2. To understand the creation
3. Man's misery by the fall
4. Our redemption
5. Our sanctification
6. The certainty of our glorification.
Of God
Q. Who made you?
A. God Isa 42:2, Gen 16:27
Q. What a one is God?
A. God is a spirit Jn 4:24; Holy Ex 15:11; Just Ex 34:6 and Merciful Ex 34:7
Q. How many gods are there?
A. But only one God, Dt 6:4 yet three persons, Mt. 3:16, 1 Jn 5:7
Q. Which are the three persons?
A. The Father begetting, the Son the begotten and the Holy Ghost proceeding, 1 Cor 13:13, Mt 28:19 and these three are God, Jn 1:1, 1 Jn 5:7, Acts 5:3.4
Q. Which of these three became man?
A. The second person,Jesus Christ,both God an man, Isa 9:6, Heb 2:17

Contemporaries 7

William Cavendish (1590–1628) was a nobleman, the second Earl of Devonshire and the second son of his namesake the first earl, William Cavendish (1551-1626) and his first wife, Anne Keighley. He was educated by Thomas Hobbes the philosopher, who resided at Chatsworth as his private tutor for many years and accompanied him in a tour through France and Italy before his coming of age. Hobbes says they were friends 20 years and eulogises his learning in the dedication of his translation of Thucydides. Cavendish was admitted to Gray's Inn, 1602 and probably graduated MA from Cambridge before being incorporated at Oxford, 1608. He was knighted, 1609 and married (allegedly against his will) the year before, Christian Bruce (1595–1675), daughter of Edward, Lord Bruce of Kinloss (later a notable royalist). They had three sons - William, the third earl; Charles, an army officer and Henry, who died in youth. His daughter Anne, a well-known patroness of literature, married Robert, Lord Rich, heir of the Earl of Warwick.
Cavendish was after his marriage a leader of court society and an intimate friend of James I. He was MP for Bishop's Castle (1610) and Derbyshire (1614, 1621, 1624-26) and Lord Lieutenant of Derbyshire, jointly with his father from 1619 then alone his death. In April 1622 he introduced to audiences with the king ambassadors from the emperor Ferdinand, Venice and the United Provinces. He was a leading member of the Virginia and Somers Island companies, frequently lobbying the crown on their behalf. His role in overseas ventures led, in 1623, to conflict with Robert Rich, Earl of Warwick. A duel was arranged, but prevented by the privy council. In 1625 he was present at Charles I's marriage. Styled Lord Cavendish from 1616, early in 1626 he inherited his father's title and seat in the Lords. There he resisted Buckingham's attempt to interpret a speech of Sir Dudley Digges as treasonous (May 13 1626). His lavish hospitality strained his ample resources in his last years and in 1628 a private act of Parliament enabled him to sell some of the entailed estates in discharge of his debts. His London house was in Bishopsgate (hence the later name Devonshire Square). He died there (from excessive indulgence in good living, it is said) June 1628. He was buried in July in All Saints', Derby.

Large Catechism 03

Q. But can you tell me what are the works of the devil, the world's vanity and the ill motions of the heart?
A. Whatsoever I or any other do think, speak or do against the will of God revealed by his Word.
Q. What has moved you to forsake the devil, the world and the flesh?
A. For that I have learned and do perceive that these three be the only malicious, spiritual, powerful, subtle and continual enemies of my eternal felicity.
Q. What are the other things that your godfathers and godmothers promised for you?
A. That I should believe all the Articles of my Christian faith; and diligently learn God's holy will and commandments and obediently walk in the same all the days of my life.
Q. Where is this will of God to be learned?
A. Not from mine own fantasy or man's wisdom but only out of the Scripture, which is the word written by his prophets and Apostles in the books of the Old and New Testament, which is sufficient to teach us all things necessary that we need to believe for our salvation.

Publications 03

[Worksop priory]Title: A double catechisme one more large, following the order of the common authorized catechisme, and an exposition thereof: now this second time published: the other shorter for the weaker sort: both set forth for the benefit of Christian friends and wel-willers. By Richard Bernard, Master of Arts, and preacher of Gods word at Worsop in Nottinghamshire. 1 Tim 4:1, 2 I charge thee before God, etc 1 Pet 2:2 As newborn babes, etc
Imprint: Cambridge: Printed by Iohn Legate, 1607.
Date: 1607
No. pages: [6], 43, [1] p.
Notes: A revised version of: Bernard, Richard. A large catechisme. Imperfect; lacking leaves C4-5.
Copy from: Cambridge University Library
The catechisms are preceded by a four page dedication to William Cavendish (1590-1628) son and heir to the right honorable William Lord Cavendish (1552-1626).
This double catechism was reissued with a new title in 1612
Title: Iosuahs godly resolution in conference with Caleb, touching houshold gouernement for well ordering a familie With a twofold catechisme for instruction of youth; the first short, for the weaker sort, set forth in sixe principall points; the latter large for other of greater growth, and followeth the order of the common authorized catechisme, and is an explanation thereof: both set forth for the benefit of his Christian friends and wel-willers. by Richard Bernard preacher of Gods word, at Woorksoppe in Nottingam-shire.
Imprint: Printed at London: By Iohn Legatt, printer to the Vniuersitie of Cambridge, and are to be sold in Pauls Church-yard at the signe of the Crowne by Simon Waterson, 1612.
Date: 1612
No. pages: 96 p.
Notes: In two parts (register is continuous). Part 2 reprints Bernard's "A double catechisme, one more large, following the order of the common authorized catechisme, now this second time published: the other shorter" (STC 1936), a revised version of his "A large catechisme" (STC 1955.5) with the short catechism.; Part 2 caption title reads: The catechisme.
Copy from: Folger Shakespeare Library
A revised and enlarged version appeared twice in 1629 as follows
Title: Iosuahs resolution for the well ordering of his household A two-fold catechisme: one short, the other more large; both for instruction. In the end, certaine rules, for guiding to a holy conuersation. By Richard Bernard, Pastor at Batcombe in Somersetshire.
Imprint: London: Printed by Iohn Legatt, and are to bee sold by Simon Waterson, at the signe of the Crowne in Pauls Church-yard, 1629.
Date: 1629
Pages: [6], 105, [1] p.
Notes: Another edition, revised and enlarged, of: Josuahs godly resolution in conference with Caleb, touching houshold governement for well ordering a familie.
Copy from: Bodleian Library
This work is preceded by a three and a half page dedication 'To the right and worshipful and worthily honoured Sir Henry Rosewell and Sir John Drake Knights, and to their virtuous adn truly religious ladies'. Rosewell (1590-1656) and Drake were brothers-in-law adn west country Puritans.


Publications 02

Title: The faithfull shepheard the shepheards faithfulnesse: wherein is for the matter largely, but for the maner, in few words, set forth the excellencie and necessitie of the ministerie; a ministers properties and dutie; his entrance into this function and charge; how to begin fitly to instruct his people; catechising and preaching; and a good plaine order and method therein: not so as yet published ... etc, etc. By Richard Bernard, preacher of Gods Word. 2 Tim 2:15 Study to shew yourself, etc.
Imprint: London: Printed by Arnold Hatfield for Iohn Bill, 1607.
Date: 1607
No. pages: [8], 95, [1]
Copy from: Cambridge University Library
The work is preceded by a two page dedication 'to the right worshipful his honorable good friend M. Dr Mountague, Dean of his Majesty's Chapel'. This is James Montague (c 1568-1618). There is also a three page dedication 'to his brethren of the ministry and the beloved readers'.
This is the work that I am slowly aiming to transcribe onto these pages at present. It was later revised and expanded.

Large Catechism 02

Q. What did your Godfathers and Godmothers promise for you?
A. They did promise and avow these things in my name, the first was that I should forsake the devil and his works, the pomps, the vanities of this wicked world, and all the sinful lusts of the flesh.

Q. What were you then bound to them, that you have promised to forsake them?
A. Yea verily by the corruption of my nature I am a bondslave to Satan, prone to all vice, having the seed of all sin in me and a condemner of God and of my neighbour

Q. How can you then forsake them or cease to do all evil, being thus bound and prone unto it?
A. Not by any natural power of myself but only by the grace of God hen it is given unto me.

Q. Are you sure you have forsaken them, are you not deceived?
A. I am not deceived; for I hate unfainedly the works of the devil, the world's vanity, all the ungodly manners of every man; and labour by all good means to love the works of god, to follow the godly and endeavour to kill speedily every ill motion but to cherish the good in my heart, by meditation, vows, fasting and prayer.


Large Catechism 01

Part 1 - Of new birth

Q What is your name?
A Chanaeuel {God is gracious to us.
Benalleuell {Love wholly the Lord with the heart.

Q Who gave you this name?
A My godfathers and my godmothers who with my father brought me to the minister to be baptized and were especial witnesses of the same and sureties to God for me.

Q Why were you baptized?
A That I might be judged a as Christian, here amongst the professors of Christs name & be received to them as a member of Christ, the child of God, and an inheritor of the kingdom of heaven.

Q. Whereby may you now be certaine, that you are such an one indeed?
A. If I do what my godfathers and godmothers promised for me.

Publications 01

Apart from his translation of Terence, Bernard's first publication appears to have been a catechism as follows.
Title: A large catechisme following the order of the common authorized catechisme published for the vse of his Christian friends and welwillers, the inhabitants of Worsopp, Gainsborough, and Epworth by Richard Barnerd, Master of Artes and preacher of Gods Word.
Imprint: [Cambridge, England]: Printed by Iohn Legat, printer to the Vniuersitie of Cambridge ... and are to be sold at the signe of the Crowne in Pauls Churchyard by Simon Waterson, 1602.
Date: 1602
No. pages: [2], 68 [i.e. 70] p
Notes: Signatures, numerous errors in paging, imperfect: print show-through.
Copy from: Peterhouse (University of Cambridge) Library.
The catechism is in five parts and at the end there is 'A short explanation of the Lord's Prayer, Creed and ten Commandments and sacraments, to bee learned of the ruder sort, made into prayers' and some seven "psalms" (Ps 80 and others on the Queen's majesty, for knowledge of God's Word, for mercy and confession, to live well and on God's goodness to the upright).


Isle of Man Part 06

5. The fifth is called Custom; this old Sire patroniseth many vain and sinful practices. By this the Jews held it no sin in them to demand, and in Pilate to let loose to them, a wicked Barabbas, one worthy to die for insurrection and murder.
6. The sixth is a Popish fellow called Forefathers; he advanceth his ancestors and their worth, and thinketh so well of them that to imitate them is no sin. Thus the Samaritans justified their false worship.
7. The seventh is one Sir Power; he maketh ever that warrantable which Law establisheth, ordaineth and decreeth, nor doth he seek to alter it. Great and capital sins in the Romish Synagogue are thus countenanced.
8. The eighth is Sir Sampler, who produceth for patterns great and learned men's examples, as if they could not do amiss; but whatsoever they do or say, it must be good and lawful, and therefore imitable without sin.
9. The ninth is Sir Mostdo, who maintained sin from a general practice, because multitudes do it here, and there, and everywhere; and therefore is it no sin to do such a thing, which almost all, or the greatest part, do.
10. The tenth is one Sir Silly, one made all of good meaning, who will qualify the fact by thinking no harm, or intending well. Thus would Saul have justified his rebellion, and Abimelech excused his taking of Abraham's wife. And thus vain persons excuse their wanton communication, profane oaths, foolish jestings, and such like, saying, they mean no harm, they only make themselves merry. Thus Sir Silly is he that maketh simple souls plead good meaning for all their foolish superstition, blind devotions, and licentious merriments.
11. The eleventh is Vain Hope, who teacheth to put off the fault to some other, as Adam to Eve, and Eve to the Serpent, and to deny the fact, as Cain did, even to God himself, hereby hoping to shift off sin, and to escape punishment, who maketh God all of mercy to the exclusion of justice.
12. The twelfth is the Lord Presumption; he feareth not judgment, he blesseth himself in his evil ways, he maketh a covenant with Death, and a league with Hell, and suffers sin to be his daily guest, and will let the Hue and Cry pass along without any fear of peril, as nothing at all concerning him.
13. The thirteenth is Sir Wilful, hating to be reformed; this is an obstinate friend for Sin, who will wilfully defend it, and be careless of all reproofs. This fellow in contempt will tread down the Hue and Cry under his feet, and maintain Sin.
14. The fourteenth is Sir Saintlike, which under the show and shadow of piety, and pretended honesty, will cover much iniquity, and hide it for a time, that it be not taken by the pursuer with the Hue and Cry; such were the hypocritical Scribes and Pharisees. These great ones, and many other more, are the friends of this thief and rebel; hut yet for all these favourites, Godly Jealousy espies him out in his harbour, and presently goeth to a Justice of Peace to procure a warrant for the Constable to attach him, and all his companions with him. The Justice is not one of a mean rank, or any petty Justice, but the very Lord Chief Justice of Heaven and Earth, the Lord Jesus; for it is he that can give the warrant to attach sin, no other warrant will sin obey. The warrant is the power of God's Word. The form of which warrant is, to search out and attach sin with all his associates, and to bring him and them before authority, to answer to such things as shall be objected against them in his Majesty the King of Heaven's behalf. The procuring of this warrant is by going unto and conferring with some of the Lord Chief Justice's Secretaries, the Writers of Holy Scriptures, setting down this charge, as Jeremiah doth, (Chapter 5) to search and try our ways.


Isle of Man Part 05

The shifts which commonly a thief maketh to escape in his flying away, are two:
1. There is his counterfeiting the habits of an honest man; so Sin craftily putteth upon himself the show of virtue, - Jehu did piety, for the getting of a kingdom, and establishing of it to himself; whose sin was covered with a pretended and hypocritical zeal for the Lord. Ananias and Sapphira made show of liberality like that of Barnabas, not discernible till Peter discovered it. For as Satan can transform himself into an Angel of light, and his Apostles into the Apostles of Christ; so can Sin, the seed of Satan, put upon itself the counterfeit of virtue.
2. A thief will alter his name, and by assuming the name of an honest man oftentimes escape away; and after this manner also eseapeth sin, vice getting upon it the name of virtue. And so Drunkenness escapeth under the name of Good Fellowship; Covetousness under the name of Good Husbandry; Filthy Ribaldry under the name of the name of Merriment; Pride of Apparel under the name of Decency and Handsomeness; Bloody Revenge for wrongs offered, escapes under the name of Valour; Foolish Wastefulness under the name of a Frank and Liberal Disposition; Superstition under the name of Devotion to Forefathers and the Old Religion; Remissness in punishing under the name of Gentleness; warmness in Religion under the praise of Discretion; and many such like foul vices do thus deceitfully hide themselves, and so escape unattached.
If by these his shifts he cannot escape Godly Jealousy, that constant pursuer, then will he seek to be holpen by his kindred and friends; for sin hath many, who will either so defend him, or excuse him, or deny him or hide him; or make him so little in fault as will almost persuade Godly Jealousy that it is even needless so eagerly to pursue after him.
1. The first of these is his grandsire Ignorance; for he knows no sin, he cannot read the Hue and Cry; he breedeth Sin, and bringeth him up, and maketh no conscience of it; if Sin get into his house he holds himself safe enough.
2. The second his brother Error the son of Ignorance; this fellow mistaketh all, and misconstrueth the whole Hue and Cry, and can find no fault with Sin, and so endeavoureth to send the pursuer another way.
3. The third is his cousin Opinion, and this will hold the pursuer with a long and tedious disputation, questioning the act, whether it be a sin or no, and will endeavour by probabilities to make it no sin, that so he might make the pursuer to desist. Thus sins of profit and such as may prevent certain dangers are disputed pro and con as men say. The sin of Usury by many is brought under Opinion as lawful some way. So the sin of Idolatry - (as it was disputed in Queen Mary’s days,) - to go and hear a mass without inward reverence in order to prevent the imminent penalty of death. Many sins evident enough are made disputable if the yield profit or be delightsome to the flesh or such as may help to keep a man’s person or state in safety; for all these Opinion will be a proctor.
4. The fourth is one Master Subtlety, his wit being attended on by little conscience of the truth. This man cometh with his distinctions to clear an act from sin thus with his latria and doulia he will have idolatry no idolatry: so with his biting and not biting, and lending to the rich upon use but not to a needy brother, usury must be no sin. This Subtlety of wit with a chivalrous conscience maketh foul sins to pass along as no sins.


The Puritans

The Oxford English Dictionary suggests that the word Puritan came into fashion around 1556 in Queen Mary’s reign. (Mary lived 1516-1558. She succeeded 1553.) Cf the relevant article on English Dissenters here. Church historian Thomas Fuller apparently wanted the word Puritan banned so imprecise did he consider it.
Carl Trueman is not the first to have observed that the word ‘has proved notoriously difficult to define.’ He says, helpfully, that ‘it remains true to say that it is easier to give examples of Puritans than give a precise and fully adequate definition of Puritanism’.(C R Trueman, The Claims of Truth; John Owen’s Trinitarian Theology Carlisle: Paternoster Press, 1998, 9). More analytically Jim Packer says ‘Puritan was an imprecise term of contemptuous abuse which between 1564 and 1642’ that applied, he says, to at least five overlapping groups.
1. Clergy, who ‘scrupled some Prayer Book ceremonies and phrasing’.
2. Those who wanted the Presbyterian reforms advocated by Thomas Cartwright (1535-1603) and the 1572 Admonition to the parliament.
3. All who ‘practised a serious Calvinistic piety’.
4. Rigid Calvinists who applauded the Synod of Dort, ‘called doctrinal Puritans by other Anglicans who did not’.
5. MPs, JPs and other gentry who ‘showed public respect for the things of God, England’s laws and her subjects’ rights’.
(Jim Packer, Quest for godliness, 35). Cartwright was a popular Cambridge preacher whose lectures on Acts, 1569-1571 had a big an impact on some eager for further ecclesiastical reform. Deprived of his fellowship he moved to the continent. The Admonition was probably by John Field (1545-1588) and Thomas Wilcox (1549-1608). London based Cartwright disciples were imprisoned for it. It was disliked by moderate Puritans eg John Foxe (1516-1587), Thomas Lever (1521-1577).
The Synod of Dort, a Reformation milestone and the source of the Canons of Dort (the 5 Points of Calvinism) was an international conference in Dort or Dordt (Dordrecht) Nov 1618-May 1619 called to settle controversy in the Dutch Reformed Church over teaching linked to Jacob Arminius (1560-1609) and promoted by Franciscus Gomarus (1563-1641), etc. Ames, Lancelot Andrewes (1555-1626), John Davenant (1576-1641), Joseph Hall (1574-1657), Samuel Ward (1572-1643) attended. See here.)
In an essay on the subject Peter Lake pinpoints three positions regarding the question in recent historiography. (Peter Lake. ‘Defining Puritanism – again?’, Francis J Bremer ed. Puritanism: Transatlantic Perspectives Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society, 1993, 3-29).
First, Puritanism was a movement committed to further reformation in the church’s government or liturgy. In Intellectual origins of the English Revolution revisited Christopher Hill confined the word Puritan to ‘all those radical Protestants who wanted to reform the Church but (before 1640 at least) did not want to separate from it.' (Christopher Hill, Intellectual origins of the English Revolution revisited Oxford: Clarendon, 1997, 25, 26). The unlikelihood of a restructuring of the Church of England no doubt helped such to focus on reforming pastoral care within established structures.
Second, Puritanism was ‘a style of piety, an emotional and ideological style’. Dr Lloyd-Jones, for example, also argued that Puritanism goes back at least as far as the English Reformer William Tyndale (1495-1536) and is an attitude of mind and heart (D M Lloyd-Jones, The Puritans: their origins and successors, Edinburgh: Banner of Truth, 1981, 240). He calls Knox the first Puritan (ibid, 260). Cf Knappen; Everett Emerson, English Puritanism From John Hooper to John Milton (Durham: Duke UP, 1968). Geoffrey Nuttall, The Puritan Spirit, London: Epworth Press, 1967, 11, similarly speaks of ‘ … that spirit in religion which has driven men at all times to seek a purer way of life’. Christopher Hill is not far from that with ‘a philosophy of life, an attitude to the universe, … not in the narrow sense restricted to religion and morals …’ (Hill, Intellectual origins, 260, 261)
Those taking this second position either ‘seek a core of definitively Puritan notions or opinions’ or see Puritans as a zealous and intense subset within the broader Protestant movement.
Thirdly, more recently the view that ‘residual notions of Puritanism as a free-standing view of the world are best jettisoned’ has been floated. The word Puritan is seen as no more than a literary device of the time (Bremer, 3-5).
Lake’s own view he describes as an amalgam of the second and third approaches. He suggests that several strands made up the typical Puritan. It is the presence not of one or two strands that identifies the Puritan but a whole series of them creating a ‘central core of a Puritan style, tradition or world view’ (Ibid, 6.). The predestinarian strand, for example, is part of Puritanism but as Lake points out elsewhere ‘between 1560 and 1625 the doctrine of predestination was accepted without question by virtually all of the most influential clergymen in England, puritan and non-puritan alike’. Lake develops his earlier argument that ‘the core of the moderate puritan position lay neither in the puritan critique of the liturgy and polity of the church nor in a formal doctrinal consensus’ but ‘in the capacity, which the godly claimed, of being able to recognise one another in the midst of a corrupt and unregenerate world’. They insisted on the ‘transformative effect of the word on the attitudes and behaviour of all true believers.’
(Cf Christopher Durston and Jacqueline Eales, The culture of English Puritanism 1560-1700, Basingstoke: MacMillan, 1996, 7; Peter Lake, Moderate Puritans and the Elizabethan Church, Cambridge: CUP, 1982, 282. Further discussion of the definition of Puritanism can be found in the opening essays by John Morrill and Dwight Brautigam in Laura Lunger Knoppers (ed), Puritanism and Its Discontents, Newark: University of Delaware Press and London: Associated University Presses, 2003, 27ff.)
By Puritans we mean men of this sort. This group is often identified with the early ‘spiritual brotherhood’ of Richard Greenham (1531-1591), Richard Rogers (1550-1620), Henry Smith (1550-1591), John Dod (1549?-1645), Arthur Hildersham (1563-1632) and those like Richard Bernard who succeeded them prior to the later Puritan ascendancy.


Isle of Man Part 04

Isle of Man Part 4
The hue and cry thus set out, it is carried by the Spirit of supplication, crying mightily to the Lord for grace and mercy to help in time of need, as David did, who saw sin before him and then made the hue and cry, saying; Have mercy upon me, O Lord, according to thy loving kindness, according to the multitude of thy mercy do away with my offences.
This hue and cry must not be let slip at any hand, but be carried along in the pursuit, lest in following of sin, men be deceived, and solid virtues be attacked instead of vices. For this we must know, as vices have not a few friends (which shall after be showed) so virtues have many enemies ready to bear false witness against them, that they may be pursued after - malefactors, that sin in the meanwhile may seek shelter and escape, and the enemies are these:
1. One Mr Outside. On the inside a carnal securitan fellow that will come to his church, keep his Sundays and holy days; but yet in the congregation while he sitteth among others, sometimes he is nodding and sometime, fast asleep and if he abide waking then is his mind wandering abroad, so as he remained still ignorant, without any effectual power of the Word; and being out of the church, he is presently upon his worldly business or pleasure.
This fellow cannot abide any after-meditation or Christian conference with others of that which he hath heard; but tells you his parlour shall not be turned into a preaching or praying place. Christians cannot meet except in the church, but he calls their meetings conventicles, and sends the hue and cry against it as against schism. This is a vulgar ignoramus and a blockish adversary.
2. The second is, Sir Worldly Wise, a very fool to God, a self-conceited earthworm whose wisdom is from below, and therefore sensual, earthly and devilish, who proudly with much disdain, condemneth the wisdom which is from above, pure and peaceable, sincere and charitable; and is ready to tend the hue and cry after it, as after foolish and doting simplicity.
3. The third is Sir Lukewarm. This fellow is a temporising time-server, Jack on both sides, he is all in the praise of moderation and discretion, one very indifferent between this and that. He cannot endure fervent zeal, but would have hue and cry sent against it as a fiery mad-brained rashness.
4. The fourth is Sir Plausible Civil, a fashionable fellow, framed to a commendable outward behaviour for civility, but in matters of religion he hath no more but what he has by common education, custom and the example of others. To the life of religion he is a stranger. Strict serving of God and a more narrow search of our ways, he holds to be foolish scrupulosity and is desirous to have the Hue and Cry sent out against it, as against fantastical preciseness.
5. The fifth is Master Machiavel, a mischievous companion; all for policy, little for piety, and then in pretence only. He is a very Jehu, zealous against Baal, to root out Ahab's posterity, for he more sure settling of the kingdom to him and his; but in state idolatry, a very Jeroboam, to keep the kingdom from being reunited to Judah. He cannot suffer gainful abuses to be reformed; but if any attempt any such thing, be accuseth them for factious turbulent spirits, and so would he have the hue and cry made against their endeavours as against some Puritanical trick.
6. The sixth is one Libertine. This licentious fellow hath a chivalrous conscience, caring for nothing but how to pass on along his life in pleasurable contentments. Religion by him is held to be but a devised policy to keep men in awe of a Deity; and therefore when he seeth religion to be made conscience of, he presently causes hue and cry to be made against it as against hypocrisy. This profane enemy laugheth and mocketh at Christianity.
7. The seventh is Scrupolosity. This is an unsociable and snappish fellow, he makes sins to himself more than the law condemneth, and lives upon faultfinding. Weak Apprehension is his father and Misunderstanding his mother, and an Uncharitable Heart his nurse. The use of Christian liberty, if it be more in his conceit than he pleaseth to like well of, then would he haven the hue and cry sent against it as against carnal security. This is a rigid and censorious adversary.
8. The eighth is the Babbling Babylonian. This is a doting companion and superstitiously foolish. He boasteth of antiquity, though his ways be novelty; yet be will have it the old religion and if any forsake it as idolatry, those he condemneth for schismatics, and labours to have the hue and cry sent out against all reformation in Christian Churches as against heresy. This is a bigoted antichristian adversary.
These are the principal informers (for I pass by petty companions) which endeavour to mislead the pursuer of sin and to set him to attach very eminent and excellent virtues for vices. Therefore it is necessary to have sin set out by marks infallible in the hue and cry else this subtle villain sin will craftily beguile the pursuer, and will escape either by the shifts which he can make to deceive him or by his many friends he hath to keep him from being apprehended.


Faithful Shepherd 7D

An evident place of Scripture carrying the sense after the letter with proof thereof
Ecclesiastes 7:22 Surely there is no man just in the earth, that doth good and sinneth not.
Here looking upon this place and observing the words, nothing I find obscure, needing interpretation but the right sense to be as the words openly declare, for the same agrees with the analogy of faith, it being a principle taught that all men are sinners, the first petition teaching every man to ask pardon of his sins. It agreeth with the circumstances of the place, and Solomon's purpose, also with other Scriptures such as Ps 14:3, La 3:2, 1 Jn 1:8, Ro 7:19.
Therefore this and the like Scriptures delivering in the letter the true meaning, we are to proceed to instructions without searching forth of any other sense from the words, or standing upon explaining of the words, being not obscure except the rudeness of the auditory untaught in common things doth require a brief unfolding of the words as one cometh to them. For there is nothing so clear but even the main points of Christianity needeth opening (as in this place – who is a just man; what sin is and to do good) to such as be uncatechised and not instructed in the common terms of religion such as law, gospel, faith, repentance, flesh, spirit, etc.
An obscure Scripture which cannot be taken according to the letter.
Matthew 26:26 This is my body
1. The Papists exposition false and proved. In examining our expositions upon places we must first of all refer the matter to some point of catechism and after that principle of divinity proceed therein.
This is an obscure Scripture and cannot be meant literally as the Papists expound them, as if Christ had said 'This bread is my natural body, born of the virgin Mary my mother by transubstantiation', for it is absurd and too gross a conceit. Therefore we search out another sense and say as if Christ had said, indeed as he meant The bread is a sign of my body sacramentally.
Now to try out expositions we must come to the former rules. First, to confute the Papists, before we confirm our own, the matter in hand is about the sacrament (for this is ever to be marked, of what the place speaketh, so that we may refer it to some catechism point, to try the interpretation by, as places speaking of Christ, we must refer them to his nature or offices. And according unto the principles therein learned examine our expositions). Therefore we are to refer this predication to the doctrine of sacraments, where we shall find their exposition to be against the nature of a sacrament, which is a relation and not truly a substance, a sign as well as the thing signified.
Christ is not bodily in the sacrament
2. Bring it to another part of the catechism, to the creed, and we shall find it to be against two articles of the same; of Christ's true human nature, having a true body with all the dimensions, which being so, cannot be enclosed in a wafer cake. Also against Christ sitting at the right hand of his Father, which is ever true at all moment of times, but this cannot I believe if he be in the sacrament and every morning mass and so often as the sacrament is celebrated. It cannot be said that one true body can be at one instant in two places.
3. Try it by the circumstances of the place, and it is overthrown, considering who administered it, Jesus Christ, sitting at the table, and the bread in his hand, by which either must his body sitting at the table be a fantastical body, if the bread was his true body or the bread but bread, if the bread was then but bread, it was not transubstantiated, belike till after his resurrection, and in so saying the first institution should be defective, and the disciples of Christ to receive less than we do, if it be now transubstantiated. Note again, that it is called bread it and appears ever bread. Now if it were changed, it were a miracle and no miracle but it was sensible. The disciples they took it, saw Christ when they ate it, and felt no flesh. The end of a sacrament is to remember him; now we remember not things present. It is against therefore the end of a sacrament.
4. Lastly, it is against Scripture, Acts 3:21. The exposition is therefore false, too cannibal like, allowing the eating of man's flesh, which the Jews abhorred to hear of. It is false, foolish and absurd, against religion, reason, sense, and natural instinct.
Our exposition true and plainly proved
Contrariwise our exposition is true, on the contrary agreeing with the nature of a sacrament, with articles of faith, with Scripture (John 6:63, Acts 3:21) with all the circumstances of the place, and with places speaking of the like matter, in like manner, and yet no transubstantiation (Gn 17:10, 1 Co 10:4, 11:25). Therefore this must be given and the right meaning of the words.


Faithful Shepherd 7C

No Scripture is contrary to itself
But here note that there is no discord in Scripture, neither one place contrary to another, albeit through our ignorance it seem so to us, but it is not so indeed.
What is required to make a contradiction
For in a contradiction, there must be two places having the same words in meaning, understood of one and the same thing or subject matter, the same reason and end intended in one respect and manner of doing at the same time.
If this be so there is a contradiction by affirmation and negation, such as - Faith alone doth justify us before God; faith alone doth not justify us before God. Here is a contradiction. But if the places agree not to one individuate thing, to the same part of that thing, in one and the same respect and consideration, and at the same time also, there is no contradiction between them. By this rule try all the apparently contradictory in the Scripture and we shall find no opposition at all. Eg, in Gn 17:14, Ga 5:2 seem to be in opposition but try the places and we shall find them disagree in time and so there is no contariety. Likewise Ro 3:28, Jas 2:24 agree not in the same respect, St Paul speaking of faith justifying before God and James of faith justifying before men. The way to reconcile such places is must be these aforesaid means as I have said.
How to reconcile places together
But now to know when it is needful to use these means, for not every text requires this much trouble.
A rule to know when the text according to the true letter is the true sense of the place and when not
This is the general rule, if the meaning of the words in any text, as they there be set down, do agree with the circumstance of the same place, it is the true sense thereof, as in Ac 26:23; Ro 3:10. But if the words carry an appearance of anything contrary to the analogy of faith, or against the Scriptures, or against the scope of the Scriptures, or against common good, or against the light of nature, containing any absurdity or appearance of evil, as in these Scriptures literally taken by themselves, without any further consideration, Lk 10:4, Mt 10;9, 5:29, Lk 16:8, Jn 6:53, Rev 22:11, etc, they are not to be taken literally but figuratively and another meaning must be made of them than the letter gives forth, agreeing with other Scriptures, the analogy of faith, with the circumstances and drift of the place and the nature of the thing being handled. To make this evident we will bring in several examples to declare the same of evident places, of figurative and obscure; of mixed, partly evident and partly obscure; lastly of places dissonant one from another, how to reconcile them.

Isle of Man Part 03

Isle of Man Part 3
To this watch-word, Godly Jealousy with his associates do willingly attend, keeping carefully the watch, so as the thief is seen, and presently they make Hue and Cry after him.
Thus Hue and Cry is written by the Bible-Clerk, and containeth infallible marks to discover sin, whereby it may be certainly known and they are these
1. By the Law of the Ten Commandments. For by it cometh the knowledge of sin; for every failing in that which is commanded, and every thought, word and deed, against that which is forbidden, is sin.
2. By every exhortation to virtue, and every dehortation from vice: being appendices to the commandments, showing what we ought to do and what ought to be shunned and avoided of us.
3. By every threatening which is in the Word of God’s displeasure for sin.
4. By punishment inflicted, which is certainly God’s hand for sin; for were he not provoked by sin, he would not afflict us.
5. By the humble confession of such as have acknowledged their sins in particular.
6. By plain accusations, laying sins to men’s charges. Isa 59:3, etc.
7. By reproofs and checks for sin. 2 Ch 19:2.
8. By places numbering up sins by name in sundry places in Scripture. Ro 1:29-32; 1 Tim 1:9,10; 2 Tim 3, etc; 1 Co 5:11; Gal 5:19-21; Re 21:8; Pr 11:1; Mic 6;11.
9. By the description of sin, showing what it is, as in 1 Jn 3:4; 5:17; Ro 14:23; Pr 21:4; 24:9; 1:21.
10. By the description of godly men negatively, by such things as they ought to avoid, as in Ps 1:1; 15:3-5; 24:4; Ez 18:8; Is 33:15; Ps 101:3; 16:4.
Lastly, by the description of wicked men by their bad qualities and conditions, Ps 10:2, 11; 12:2, 4; 57:21.


Isle of Man Part 02

The Isle of Man or Legal proceedings in Manshire Part 2
But before search can be made, a watch must be set to espy him out, that he may be arrested. The watchman appointed for this purpose is Godly Jealousy, who hath ever an holy suspicion of a man’s own ways, lest in any thing at any time he should misbehave himself.
This vigilant watchman has with him two assistants ever to accompany him; the one is Love-good, a zealous fellow for God and good duties. The other is Hate-ill, an angry and waspish fellow, and of a fierce countenance against sin.
These three ever keep together, so as sin cannot so cunningly enter, but they can quickly espy him, and as speedily pursue him and put him to flight.
The place where these are set watchmen, is called Soul’s Town, a town of great resort, a thoroughfare never without travellers, ill motions, day and night; and the posts, which are Satan’s suggestions, ever and anon pass through, and many at the common Inn, the Heart, take up their lodgings.
This town is very spacious and large, for besides many back-ways, by-lanes and out-corners, there are four great streets: Sense-street, Thought-street, Word-street and Deed-street; in some of which this lewd companion sin, and his cope-mates will be found wandering.
When the watch is set, they have a charge given them, by one in authority, which is this; keep thy soul diligently and withal they have a watchful eye to the Inn, and to take heed lest at any time there be an heart of infidelity to depart from the living God, commanding also the watchmen to exhort one another daily, lest their hearts be hardened with the deceitfulness of sin.
These watchmen have also a watch-word given them, even a word of preventing grace; saying to them, This is the way, walk in it, when they are turning to the right hand, or to the left.

Isle of Man Part 01

The Isle of Man or Legal proceedings in Manshire Part 1

Lamentations 3:40 Let us search and try our ways
The lamenting prophet Jeremiah in his days, full of lamentation and mourning, seeing and also partaking with others of those miseries which befell the state of the Jews, justly procured at God's hands for their sins, doth here give them advice what was best to be done, that in this their distress God might show them mercy; and that was to repent and turn unto the Lord, to the effecting whereof he counselleth them two things.
1. To search out sin. 2. To put it to trial. Lam 3:40
In the handling whereof I will proceed as here we do against a lewd and wicked malefactor, legally, according to the laws of this realm.
The first part of the process is to search; we know that when one hath offended the laws, hath committed any felony, murder, treason, or done any outrage, for which he is to be apprehended, he presently flying and hiding himself, is pursued, and sought after; diligent search is made to arrest him.
The malefactor here which doth so much harm on everyone, everywhere without ceasing, is sin. This is a notable thief and robber, daring to set upon any. He robbeth God of his honour and man of God’s favour. This thief stole from angels their excellency of glory, from our first parents their innocency. This is that robbeth us of our graces, the spiritual money we have in the purses of our heart, to help us in our journey to heaven. This villain bereaveth us of our goods, driveth away our cattle, spoileth us of every temporal blessing - of our health, our peace, our liberty, and plenty. He it is that utterly undoeth us, and maketh our state miserable, that we cannot thrive in anything, body or soul.
This is a murdering thief. Wheresoever he breaketh in, by day or by night, there will he either kill or be killed. Man and sin cannot both live together. Most bloodily cruel he is, for he will spare none. He slayeth the hoary head and killeth the tender mother with the new-born baby. He regardeth no person, no sex, no age, of so murderous a disposition is he, and so inhumanly barbarous.
He is a very strong thief, no human power can subdue him; he taketh man and bindeth him for 'Iniquity taketh the wicked, and holdeth him with the cords of his own sins' (Pr 5:22). He will bear rule where he cometh, all must obey him. He will command the reason, reign over the will, and swagger over the affections, and lead captive the whole man (Ro 7:23) and make him serviceable to his lusts; yea, and make him spend his whole estate to maintain him in his lustful humours; whether it be in pride or drunkenness or gluttony or idleness or adultery, or whatsoever else it is; he both must and will have maintenance, else will he set all on fire, for 'Wickedness burneth as fire' (Is 9:18).
This is an ungrateful and mischievous thief for let any entertain him and favour him, he will work their overthrow. Yea, so vile a villain is he, that the more any make of him, the worse is he to them, for he 'withholds all good from them, he procureth mischiefs to light upon them' (Je 5:25, 4:18). He keepeth out grace from having any entertainment. He smothereth conscience from speaking; hardeneth the heart from feeling; blindeth the judgment from discerning; stoppeth the ear from hearing any good counsel; lameth the feet from walk­ing in God's paths; benumbeth the hands from doing duties of charity; and maketh the tongue to falter in speaking of holy things. Neither yet doth he this only; but he worketh enmity betwixt his favourite and his best friend - even between God and his own conscience.
And to make up the height of his mischief, the more to strengthen himself against his foolish and unhappy friend, he, at unawares to him, letteth in, and that into the best room, (even the heart,) his great and most deadly enemy, the devil.
Thus covetousness did let him into Judas’s heart, and set him on work to betray Christ. Flattery let him into the hearts of the false prophets to deceive Ahab. Carelessness lets him in to hinder the fruit of the Word. Loss of God's lets him in, and seven worse with him, to ruin a man utterly. Hypocritical vain-glory and covetousness did let him into the hearts of Ananias and Sapphira: for vain-glory made them sell all, to make a show to be like Barnabas, but covetousness with unbelief advised them to withhold some of the money, lest they should happen to want – but how to do this and keep their credit they knew not; therefore hypocrisy, vain-glory, covetousness and unbelief called in Satan to hear his counsel, who taught them to lie unto the Holy Ghost, even to the death of them both. Thus we see, what an ungrateful villain Sin is to his best friends.
Lastly, this thief is an artful, subtle thief (He 3:13). Sin is deceitful; it beguiled Adam, David, and Solomon: yea, St Paul once rapt up into the third heaven - doth acknowledge that it deceived him (Ro 7:11). And whom hath it not deceived? He is therefore carefully to be avoided and taken heed of and this robbing, murdering, strong, ungrateful, mischievous and subtle thief diligently to be sought out.


Faithful Shepherd 7B

How to give a true sense upon a place and to try the same so to be
Now to give this right exposition of the place; to judge of other men's interpretations, approving of the best, rejecting of the worst; to examine aright also variety of readings and translations; in what sense to take words of diverse meanings; to make supply of a grammatical ellipsis; yea and to reconcile rightly places which seem to disagree may be done by the means following.
By analogy of faith, the points of the Catechism
1. By the analogy of faith, for it must agree with the principles of religion, the points of catechism set down in the Creed, the Lord's Prayer, the Ten Commandments and the doctrine of the sacraments. Someone has said, with an obscure proposition first of all settle by a little disciplined and methodical recollection start from a principle in the same tradition and that shows the analogy.
This is what the Apostle meaneth and why he wills Timothy to keep the true pattern of wholesome words, the pattern hold thou of sound words, which one right well interpreteth thus, the right method in theological matters to which the interpretation of more obscure places may be brought, as regards 'settled and immovable interpretations (hermeneutics)', as the same author calls it, which if men would use, there should never be such monstrous opinions broached, nor so dangerous contentions raised in the church daily, as there hath been and now is. But everything would agree with faith and charity in which stands the form of wholesome words delivered by the apostles to which the four formerly mentioned may be fitly reduced. The Creed to Faith, as the sum thereof, and so the sacraments as seals confirming the same. To Love, the Commandments, which show us what to do to our neighbour; and the Lord's Prayer, teaching what to request of God for our neighbour.
By circumstances
2. By the circumstance of the place, what, who, to whom, by what, when, and how, observing carefully what goes before, what follows after. Of which things speaks St Augustine and St Jerome, on Amos 4 and Matthew 25 - by the preceding and succeeding being gathered comes the genuine sense of Scripture. (Augustine, Christian Doctrine, Book 2, Chap 31). We may not only look upon one word and sentence, and thereupon judge of all: the scope must withal be diligently attended unto, wherefore the words are spoken. As the order of the discourse is to be weighed for right interpretation, so the end is to be considered, to give a true sense; understanding comes when the cause being sought is ascertained. The saying of Hilary cited by Lyranus on Deut 28 whereunto agreeth that lawyers' rule, first and foremost is what the voice of reason dictates. On this see Augustine on Christian Doctrine Book 3, Chaps 5 and 10.
By comparing Scripture with itself
3. By comparing and comparing Scripture with Scripture, the place in hand with other places; the clearer expounding the more obscure; and the more places the fewer, as St Augustine saith. The Prophets must be compared with the Law, and the New Testament with the Old (Jn 5, Ac 17:11); for the Prophets expound Moses and the Apostles and Evangelists them both. This is the searching of the Scripture commanded by our Saviour and for which the Bereans are commended.
What Scriptures to be compared together with the same repeated
Now the Scriptures to be compared together are of three sorts.
1) With places, the selfsame in other places repeated, as that of God to Abraham, Gen 12:3 compared with 22:18, Acts 3:2, Gal 3:8 is the same repeated again, so Isaiah 29:13, again repeated Matt 15:8.
Yet here note, that these places are not so precisely repeated, but that sometimes there may be and is a little alteration and this is for five causes, which may be as helps to us in the interpretation of our text in hand.
Why the same places repeated sometimes have some alteration
1. For interpretation sake. Ps 78:2, Mt 13:38.
2. For to distinguish one thing from another as in Mic 5:1, Mt 2:6.
3. To make a restraint of somewhat more general to a more special as Dt 6:13, Mt 4:10 and Isa 29:13, Mt 15:8.
4. For application of the type to the truth and of a general to a special, as Jon 1:7, Mt 12:39, 40; Ps 69:25, Ac 1:20.
5. For brevity sake or that something fit not the matter in hand as Zc 9:9, Mt 21:5.
With places alike but not the same
2) Another kind is with places not the selfsame repeated, but others somewhat alike, and agree either in words, as Gen 28:12, Jn 1:55 and Gn 3:15, Rom 16:20 or in the meaning, being alike in substance of matter,as Mt 6:26, Gen 17:10, Solomon's precept in Proverbs 28:13 expressed by David Ps 32: 3-5. Here one place for illustration, is an example of the same kind, to a precept or exhortation: So likewise: 2 Sam 15:25, 26 a plain expressing of Peter's exhortation, 1 Pe 5:6.
With places unalike and differing or seeming contrary in appearance
3) The last kind is with place unalike, which show themselves seeming to disagree from the place in hand, when they be compared together and thus unlikeness is either in words or manner of speaking, as Ro 3:28, Lam 2:24, so 1 Kg 9:28, 2 Chr 8:18 and Zc 4;13, Mt 27:9 where the prophecy is ascribed to Jeremiah, or else disagree in the meaning, as Ac 7:16, Gn 48:22.
But here note that discord is not in Scripture, neither is one place contrary to another, albeit through our ignorance it seem so to us; but it is not so indeed. For in a contradiction, there must be two places having the same words in meaning, understood of one and the same thing or subject matter the same reason and end intended in one respect and manner of doing at the same time.


Contemporaries 6

Robert Balsom (d 1647)

Benjamin Brook described Balsom as a 'pious and very courageous puritan divine'. He was born at Shepton Montague, Somerset, 5 or 6 miles south of Batcombe. He was educated at New Inn Hall, Oxford, from where he went to become an assistant to Richard Bernard. On Bernard's death he moved to Stoke (Trister?), a village in the same area.
After two years there with some success, owing to the civil war he was obliged to flee for safety to Wardour Castle [see pic], just over the border in Wiltshire. A short while later it was besieged by Royalists. At the solicitation of Colonel Ludlow, Balsom remained during the siege. Upon its capitulation, walking on the roof of the castle, Balsom overheard three soldiers talk about killing the minister. They spoke of him as some sort of wizard working against their cause. When the treaty was concluded, the enemy entered and Balsom was shut up in close confinement with a soldier who was hanged the next morning. At midnight the key of the prison was put into the hands of his intended assassins, who entered the room, and (removing their hats) stood at a distance, apparently doubtful and undetermined, but saying nothing. Balsom, recognising them and strongly suspecting their design, asked them their business. With great agitation, one confessed their plan but promised to do him no harm. They then urged him to make his escape, offering him all the assistance in their power. Suspecting they might have some other evil design, he refused. Even after they had convinced him of their integrity, he still refused, saying he would rather endure all that God would permit than let them hazard their lives. And so, to testify their esteem and their integrity, they conducted him into the fresh air and, having cleared his room, he departed.
A council was called the next morning to consider how to dispose of the prisoner. While they were debating this at least one man defended Baklsom and dissocaited himself from any plans to have him killed. Balsom was taken to Salisbury, where, that same night, another council was summoned. They sentenced him to be hanged. The sheriff of the county waited on him in prison, and, after much abusive language, told him to prepare for execution the next morning, assuring him, however, that provided he would ask the king's pardon and show himself loyal, he would not only be pardoned but might have almost any preferment he might want. Balsom baulked at the idea of seeking pardon when he was conscious of no offence. So he headed for the gibbet but just before the wicked deed was done a reprieve suddenly arrived from Sir Ralph Hopton. Balsom was taken to him in Winchester. There Sir William Ogle, the governor, told Balsom he would feed him on bread and water two or three days then have you hanged but being brought before Hopton, after some conversation about his espousing the parliamentary cause and the principles on which he had acted, he was committed to prison, with the charge, 'Keep this man safe; but use him well.' Balsom was eventually taken to Oxford. Despite imprisonment he preached twice daily and many came to him. After having been once or twice prohibited, he told them, that if they were weary of him and did not wish to be longer troubled with him, they might turn him out of doors whenever they liked. As long as he had a tongue to speak, and people to hear, he would not hold his peace.
At length, an exchange of prisoners led to his being set free and he became chaplain to the Earl of Essex. He later settled at Berwick (Bassett?), where he often preached and took forward the work of reformation. He was also involved to some extent with exorcisms, which brought him to public attention. On a visit to his home county in 1647 he suddenly took ill and died.


Faithful Shepherd 7A

Of the annotations and interpretation of the words
After the division of the text must follow an explanation of the simple words or of words joined together, evidently making a sentence. Yet this is not to be done at once throughout the text, but in order, as the words or the sentences come up in the different parts of the division. This will prevent tediousness and tautologies.
What is to be explained and what not
If the words be but two or three together or but one brief sentence then as necessity requireth they may be explained at once, then a paraphrase made thereon, brief and plain. This is not to be done where the words are plain, without any obscurity in them. For every Scripture is either set down plainly and the words are to be taken properly as they lie in the letter (thus is every doctrine of Faith and manners necessary to salvation set down) which needs no explication of words but only enlarging of the matter, or else obscurely, and thus needs exposition.
How Scripture becomes obscure and wherein the obscurity lies
No Scripture is in itself obscure. Rather, we lack eyesight to behold what is contained therein. The sun is ever clear though we through our blindness cannot see that shining or because some dark clouds hinder our sight, which are to be removed that we may look on it.
The clouds obscuring the clear light of the Scripture in the words or sentences are these. If we can expel them, the matter in every text will become manifest.
1. Sometimes variety of reading. In certain Hebrew texts and Greek passages, through ignorance or negligence, copyists have allowed things to creep in. Still, do not consider every example to be a malicious, corrupt Jewish text for impious papists to seize on.
2. Variety of meaning of words. One word can mean many things (homonyms). Many words can mean one thing (synonyms). Also, when words are somewhat alike as if they were synonyms and yet differ.
3. Ignorance of the proper meaning of the word for want of understanding in the original languages. Also, of the phrasing and correctness of that speech.
4. Defects and errors in translations. By adding or omitting, altering, misplacing or mispointing as to comma, colon, parenthesis, period or interrogation mark.
5. Diversity of opinion among interpreters.
6. Examples of contradictory speeches.
7. Want of knowledge of the arts, history, philosophy, antiquities, closely couched in many a text of Scripture.
8. Lastly, ignorance of points of divinity and of such things whereof Scripture speaketh proper to itself, of God, of Christ Jesus, of the Law and the Gospel and of the sacraments.
As many of these as the text is obscured by and justly therefore needeth an exposition must be made plain, both to clear what is dark and to resolve the hearer's thinking with regard to what may be doubtful.
Words may thus be explained:
1. By setting down a more usual word for an unusual one, a proper word for a figurative one.
2. A more plain one for one more obscure by a grammatical synonymy.
3. By a nominal definition.
4. By distinguishing doubtful words from one another and interpreting diversity of meaning according to the subject matter there handled or else, as one saith, if a word does not receive close attention its true sense is lost.
5. By observing our own common use of such words and manner of speaking, how and why we so speak.
For translations, bring them to the original text and by that try them and see the emphasis of the words, the manner of speaking and the grammatical constructions. Reconcile what seems to jar and clear the same from false interpretations.
One true and natural sense in every place and so one right exposition
There is but one true and natural sense of every place, which is the literal sense, that which the Holy Ghost principally intended there and accordingly can can there be given but one true and right interpretation of the words and sentence. A godly meaning (sensus pius) may be made of the same, agreeing with the analogy of faith, tending to God's glory, the suppression of vice and maintenance of virtue and so tolerable. But the proper sense and genuine interpretation is that which makes the place to agree to the chief purpose and scope of the Holy Ghost intended in that same place of Scripture (genuinus sensus).



This is the Priory Church in Worksop, Nottinghamshire




Faithful Shepherd 6B

Another example Matt 10:4
These be the words of our Saviour Christ in his commission given to his disciples. He commanded them to preach and to go hither and thither, and yet without concern for corporal provision. Intimating also to them that all should not receive them, he, foreknowing man’s thoughts, who upon hearing of enemies would be somewhat discouraged, he here prevents an objection or answers closely that question which they might make concerning their behaviour to the obstinate and what shall befall them. All of which is to encourage the disciples and their ministry. The parts whereof are two in general, a combination and a commandment.

1. In the threat
1. The parties threatened. Whosoever, the persons, and after the place, the house or city.
2. Why, for two offences, not receiving the disciples and for not hearing their words.
3. The certainty of the threatening confirmed to his disciples, truly I say to you.
4. What is threatened, to wit, their certain damnation and impossibility to be saved, delivered in a comparative speech, it shall be easier.
5. The time when this shall be effected, in the day of judgement.
2. In the commandment.
1. The time, when they depart.
2. Who, the disciples, all of them.
3. What to do, shake off the dust of their feet.
Thus may we do with any Scripture, if we can but know the general, how to name it and lay it open by circumstances, even as the words lie in order. This manner of dividing will afford much matter, easy for the method and descend to the capacity of the simplest hearer. But here is no small cunning required to gather out lessons from every circumstance fitly, yet easy to anyone that understands and hath laboured herein, as shall be after demonstrated by example.
If it be held too great a curiosity so distinctly to note every word, as it were, and circumstance, then the general division only may be observed and one or more of the words followed, passing from one to another briefly at his pleasure. The way is all one – this more easy and less distinct to the understanding in particulars, the other more hard and subject to the censure of a mean hearer, any whit exercised in the word, who more easily judgeth and seeth the collections of doctrines and how it is followed and when the preacher keeps or roves from the present matter.
How to divide in another manner, in show more learned
If this way be not liked, instead of this dividing and for general heads one, two or three propositions may be gathered and as parts followed every proposition containing the substance of the circumstances in the general part.
As for example, to declare my meaning, Acts 10:33
The words are part of Cornelius’ answer and contain in them three parts.
1. Cornelius’ obedience in these words, therefore sent I for thee immediately. Wherein we note these circumstances
1. The cause, in therefore
2. The things done, in sent
3. Who, in I, that is Cornelius
4. For whom
5. When
2. Cornelius encouraging and commending of Peter. Wherein note
1. Who and whom
2. For what
3. Cornelius’ readiness, in the last words, where observe
1. When 2. The cause 3. The parties 4. The place 5. The manner 6. The end 7. What
These three propositions contain plainly these several circumstances knit up together as doctrines.
These three parts thus set forth by circumstances may be drawn into three propositions and instead of this dividing the teacher may say ‘We will in these words (after he hath read the verse) handle and speak of three things’
1. That the commandment of God must make him to whom it is given to obey the same without delay.
2. That those which send for God’s messengers should openly encourage them by commending their willingness in coming.
3. That hearers knowing of their coming should make themselves ready, wait for them, submitting themselves with reverence to hear whatsoever they shall teach them from the Lord.
These propositions may be proved and followed in the same order to a man’s self, as the circumstances should be but yet in a different presentation to the auditory – the other being delivered plainly and in a disjointed speaking, handling every circumstance by itself. But this way largely set forth with a continued speech, to the end of every proposition. The other easy to be conceived by the hearer and be delivered of the speaker, requiring neither singular memory nor much liberty of speech. And therefore to tickling ears a harsher way, though for all sorts more profitable. This other way not so easy nor so evident, hardlier to be understood by the simpler sort and more difficult to be performed by the Preacher, except he have a good memory to help well his understanding and also a ready tongue, freely unfolding without stop the conceits of the mind. Choose either according to your gifts but do all to edification.
What use is made of logic, an art most necessary for a minister
Here is required in the teacher skill in the art of logic, a special handmaid by the assistance of God's Spirit, to serve for great use in reading the Scriptures, in interpreting and laying them open unto others. By logic we see the method of the Spirit, we behold the arguments, the coherence and the scope. By it we collect doctrines, confirm and enlarge the proofs, gather thence consequently apt uses and urge them by reasons upon the hearers. Without this a teacher can never soundly lay open the Scriptures, solidly prosecute any any matter nor pithily persuade nor firmly establish a truth nor judge of consequents nor convince and adversary well nor answer warily man's subtleties nor wittily prevent cavilling sophistry. A man's oration without logic is but found of words without reason, an ignorant discourse in which if the tongue be slight and memory weak, as the hearer shall oft lose the drift of his words, so he shall not seldom forget himself by over running both his won and other men's wits.
Let logic be then the stern to guide the course of thy speeches, that the sudden blasts of affections overwhelm thee not, if thou intend to speak judicially.