Faithful Shepherd 7C

No Scripture is contrary to itself
But here note that there is no discord in Scripture, neither one place contrary to another, albeit through our ignorance it seem so to us, but it is not so indeed.
What is required to make a contradiction
For in a contradiction, there must be two places having the same words in meaning, understood of one and the same thing or subject matter, the same reason and end intended in one respect and manner of doing at the same time.
If this be so there is a contradiction by affirmation and negation, such as - Faith alone doth justify us before God; faith alone doth not justify us before God. Here is a contradiction. But if the places agree not to one individuate thing, to the same part of that thing, in one and the same respect and consideration, and at the same time also, there is no contradiction between them. By this rule try all the apparently contradictory in the Scripture and we shall find no opposition at all. Eg, in Gn 17:14, Ga 5:2 seem to be in opposition but try the places and we shall find them disagree in time and so there is no contariety. Likewise Ro 3:28, Jas 2:24 agree not in the same respect, St Paul speaking of faith justifying before God and James of faith justifying before men. The way to reconcile such places is must be these aforesaid means as I have said.
How to reconcile places together
But now to know when it is needful to use these means, for not every text requires this much trouble.
A rule to know when the text according to the true letter is the true sense of the place and when not
This is the general rule, if the meaning of the words in any text, as they there be set down, do agree with the circumstance of the same place, it is the true sense thereof, as in Ac 26:23; Ro 3:10. But if the words carry an appearance of anything contrary to the analogy of faith, or against the Scriptures, or against the scope of the Scriptures, or against common good, or against the light of nature, containing any absurdity or appearance of evil, as in these Scriptures literally taken by themselves, without any further consideration, Lk 10:4, Mt 10;9, 5:29, Lk 16:8, Jn 6:53, Rev 22:11, etc, they are not to be taken literally but figuratively and another meaning must be made of them than the letter gives forth, agreeing with other Scriptures, the analogy of faith, with the circumstances and drift of the place and the nature of the thing being handled. To make this evident we will bring in several examples to declare the same of evident places, of figurative and obscure; of mixed, partly evident and partly obscure; lastly of places dissonant one from another, how to reconcile them.

Isle of Man Part 03

Isle of Man Part 3
To this watch-word, Godly Jealousy with his associates do willingly attend, keeping carefully the watch, so as the thief is seen, and presently they make Hue and Cry after him.
Thus Hue and Cry is written by the Bible-Clerk, and containeth infallible marks to discover sin, whereby it may be certainly known and they are these
1. By the Law of the Ten Commandments. For by it cometh the knowledge of sin; for every failing in that which is commanded, and every thought, word and deed, against that which is forbidden, is sin.
2. By every exhortation to virtue, and every dehortation from vice: being appendices to the commandments, showing what we ought to do and what ought to be shunned and avoided of us.
3. By every threatening which is in the Word of God’s displeasure for sin.
4. By punishment inflicted, which is certainly God’s hand for sin; for were he not provoked by sin, he would not afflict us.
5. By the humble confession of such as have acknowledged their sins in particular.
6. By plain accusations, laying sins to men’s charges. Isa 59:3, etc.
7. By reproofs and checks for sin. 2 Ch 19:2.
8. By places numbering up sins by name in sundry places in Scripture. Ro 1:29-32; 1 Tim 1:9,10; 2 Tim 3, etc; 1 Co 5:11; Gal 5:19-21; Re 21:8; Pr 11:1; Mic 6;11.
9. By the description of sin, showing what it is, as in 1 Jn 3:4; 5:17; Ro 14:23; Pr 21:4; 24:9; 1:21.
10. By the description of godly men negatively, by such things as they ought to avoid, as in Ps 1:1; 15:3-5; 24:4; Ez 18:8; Is 33:15; Ps 101:3; 16:4.
Lastly, by the description of wicked men by their bad qualities and conditions, Ps 10:2, 11; 12:2, 4; 57:21.


Isle of Man Part 02

The Isle of Man or Legal proceedings in Manshire Part 2
But before search can be made, a watch must be set to espy him out, that he may be arrested. The watchman appointed for this purpose is Godly Jealousy, who hath ever an holy suspicion of a man’s own ways, lest in any thing at any time he should misbehave himself.
This vigilant watchman has with him two assistants ever to accompany him; the one is Love-good, a zealous fellow for God and good duties. The other is Hate-ill, an angry and waspish fellow, and of a fierce countenance against sin.
These three ever keep together, so as sin cannot so cunningly enter, but they can quickly espy him, and as speedily pursue him and put him to flight.
The place where these are set watchmen, is called Soul’s Town, a town of great resort, a thoroughfare never without travellers, ill motions, day and night; and the posts, which are Satan’s suggestions, ever and anon pass through, and many at the common Inn, the Heart, take up their lodgings.
This town is very spacious and large, for besides many back-ways, by-lanes and out-corners, there are four great streets: Sense-street, Thought-street, Word-street and Deed-street; in some of which this lewd companion sin, and his cope-mates will be found wandering.
When the watch is set, they have a charge given them, by one in authority, which is this; keep thy soul diligently and withal they have a watchful eye to the Inn, and to take heed lest at any time there be an heart of infidelity to depart from the living God, commanding also the watchmen to exhort one another daily, lest their hearts be hardened with the deceitfulness of sin.
These watchmen have also a watch-word given them, even a word of preventing grace; saying to them, This is the way, walk in it, when they are turning to the right hand, or to the left.

Isle of Man Part 01

The Isle of Man or Legal proceedings in Manshire Part 1

Lamentations 3:40 Let us search and try our ways
The lamenting prophet Jeremiah in his days, full of lamentation and mourning, seeing and also partaking with others of those miseries which befell the state of the Jews, justly procured at God's hands for their sins, doth here give them advice what was best to be done, that in this their distress God might show them mercy; and that was to repent and turn unto the Lord, to the effecting whereof he counselleth them two things.
1. To search out sin. 2. To put it to trial. Lam 3:40
In the handling whereof I will proceed as here we do against a lewd and wicked malefactor, legally, according to the laws of this realm.
The first part of the process is to search; we know that when one hath offended the laws, hath committed any felony, murder, treason, or done any outrage, for which he is to be apprehended, he presently flying and hiding himself, is pursued, and sought after; diligent search is made to arrest him.
The malefactor here which doth so much harm on everyone, everywhere without ceasing, is sin. This is a notable thief and robber, daring to set upon any. He robbeth God of his honour and man of God’s favour. This thief stole from angels their excellency of glory, from our first parents their innocency. This is that robbeth us of our graces, the spiritual money we have in the purses of our heart, to help us in our journey to heaven. This villain bereaveth us of our goods, driveth away our cattle, spoileth us of every temporal blessing - of our health, our peace, our liberty, and plenty. He it is that utterly undoeth us, and maketh our state miserable, that we cannot thrive in anything, body or soul.
This is a murdering thief. Wheresoever he breaketh in, by day or by night, there will he either kill or be killed. Man and sin cannot both live together. Most bloodily cruel he is, for he will spare none. He slayeth the hoary head and killeth the tender mother with the new-born baby. He regardeth no person, no sex, no age, of so murderous a disposition is he, and so inhumanly barbarous.
He is a very strong thief, no human power can subdue him; he taketh man and bindeth him for 'Iniquity taketh the wicked, and holdeth him with the cords of his own sins' (Pr 5:22). He will bear rule where he cometh, all must obey him. He will command the reason, reign over the will, and swagger over the affections, and lead captive the whole man (Ro 7:23) and make him serviceable to his lusts; yea, and make him spend his whole estate to maintain him in his lustful humours; whether it be in pride or drunkenness or gluttony or idleness or adultery, or whatsoever else it is; he both must and will have maintenance, else will he set all on fire, for 'Wickedness burneth as fire' (Is 9:18).
This is an ungrateful and mischievous thief for let any entertain him and favour him, he will work their overthrow. Yea, so vile a villain is he, that the more any make of him, the worse is he to them, for he 'withholds all good from them, he procureth mischiefs to light upon them' (Je 5:25, 4:18). He keepeth out grace from having any entertainment. He smothereth conscience from speaking; hardeneth the heart from feeling; blindeth the judgment from discerning; stoppeth the ear from hearing any good counsel; lameth the feet from walk­ing in God's paths; benumbeth the hands from doing duties of charity; and maketh the tongue to falter in speaking of holy things. Neither yet doth he this only; but he worketh enmity betwixt his favourite and his best friend - even between God and his own conscience.
And to make up the height of his mischief, the more to strengthen himself against his foolish and unhappy friend, he, at unawares to him, letteth in, and that into the best room, (even the heart,) his great and most deadly enemy, the devil.
Thus covetousness did let him into Judas’s heart, and set him on work to betray Christ. Flattery let him into the hearts of the false prophets to deceive Ahab. Carelessness lets him in to hinder the fruit of the Word. Loss of God's lets him in, and seven worse with him, to ruin a man utterly. Hypocritical vain-glory and covetousness did let him into the hearts of Ananias and Sapphira: for vain-glory made them sell all, to make a show to be like Barnabas, but covetousness with unbelief advised them to withhold some of the money, lest they should happen to want – but how to do this and keep their credit they knew not; therefore hypocrisy, vain-glory, covetousness and unbelief called in Satan to hear his counsel, who taught them to lie unto the Holy Ghost, even to the death of them both. Thus we see, what an ungrateful villain Sin is to his best friends.
Lastly, this thief is an artful, subtle thief (He 3:13). Sin is deceitful; it beguiled Adam, David, and Solomon: yea, St Paul once rapt up into the third heaven - doth acknowledge that it deceived him (Ro 7:11). And whom hath it not deceived? He is therefore carefully to be avoided and taken heed of and this robbing, murdering, strong, ungrateful, mischievous and subtle thief diligently to be sought out.


Faithful Shepherd 7B

How to give a true sense upon a place and to try the same so to be
Now to give this right exposition of the place; to judge of other men's interpretations, approving of the best, rejecting of the worst; to examine aright also variety of readings and translations; in what sense to take words of diverse meanings; to make supply of a grammatical ellipsis; yea and to reconcile rightly places which seem to disagree may be done by the means following.
By analogy of faith, the points of the Catechism
1. By the analogy of faith, for it must agree with the principles of religion, the points of catechism set down in the Creed, the Lord's Prayer, the Ten Commandments and the doctrine of the sacraments. Someone has said, with an obscure proposition first of all settle by a little disciplined and methodical recollection start from a principle in the same tradition and that shows the analogy.
This is what the Apostle meaneth and why he wills Timothy to keep the true pattern of wholesome words, the pattern hold thou of sound words, which one right well interpreteth thus, the right method in theological matters to which the interpretation of more obscure places may be brought, as regards 'settled and immovable interpretations (hermeneutics)', as the same author calls it, which if men would use, there should never be such monstrous opinions broached, nor so dangerous contentions raised in the church daily, as there hath been and now is. But everything would agree with faith and charity in which stands the form of wholesome words delivered by the apostles to which the four formerly mentioned may be fitly reduced. The Creed to Faith, as the sum thereof, and so the sacraments as seals confirming the same. To Love, the Commandments, which show us what to do to our neighbour; and the Lord's Prayer, teaching what to request of God for our neighbour.
By circumstances
2. By the circumstance of the place, what, who, to whom, by what, when, and how, observing carefully what goes before, what follows after. Of which things speaks St Augustine and St Jerome, on Amos 4 and Matthew 25 - by the preceding and succeeding being gathered comes the genuine sense of Scripture. (Augustine, Christian Doctrine, Book 2, Chap 31). We may not only look upon one word and sentence, and thereupon judge of all: the scope must withal be diligently attended unto, wherefore the words are spoken. As the order of the discourse is to be weighed for right interpretation, so the end is to be considered, to give a true sense; understanding comes when the cause being sought is ascertained. The saying of Hilary cited by Lyranus on Deut 28 whereunto agreeth that lawyers' rule, first and foremost is what the voice of reason dictates. On this see Augustine on Christian Doctrine Book 3, Chaps 5 and 10.
By comparing Scripture with itself
3. By comparing and comparing Scripture with Scripture, the place in hand with other places; the clearer expounding the more obscure; and the more places the fewer, as St Augustine saith. The Prophets must be compared with the Law, and the New Testament with the Old (Jn 5, Ac 17:11); for the Prophets expound Moses and the Apostles and Evangelists them both. This is the searching of the Scripture commanded by our Saviour and for which the Bereans are commended.
What Scriptures to be compared together with the same repeated
Now the Scriptures to be compared together are of three sorts.
1) With places, the selfsame in other places repeated, as that of God to Abraham, Gen 12:3 compared with 22:18, Acts 3:2, Gal 3:8 is the same repeated again, so Isaiah 29:13, again repeated Matt 15:8.
Yet here note, that these places are not so precisely repeated, but that sometimes there may be and is a little alteration and this is for five causes, which may be as helps to us in the interpretation of our text in hand.
Why the same places repeated sometimes have some alteration
1. For interpretation sake. Ps 78:2, Mt 13:38.
2. For to distinguish one thing from another as in Mic 5:1, Mt 2:6.
3. To make a restraint of somewhat more general to a more special as Dt 6:13, Mt 4:10 and Isa 29:13, Mt 15:8.
4. For application of the type to the truth and of a general to a special, as Jon 1:7, Mt 12:39, 40; Ps 69:25, Ac 1:20.
5. For brevity sake or that something fit not the matter in hand as Zc 9:9, Mt 21:5.
With places alike but not the same
2) Another kind is with places not the selfsame repeated, but others somewhat alike, and agree either in words, as Gen 28:12, Jn 1:55 and Gn 3:15, Rom 16:20 or in the meaning, being alike in substance of matter,as Mt 6:26, Gen 17:10, Solomon's precept in Proverbs 28:13 expressed by David Ps 32: 3-5. Here one place for illustration, is an example of the same kind, to a precept or exhortation: So likewise: 2 Sam 15:25, 26 a plain expressing of Peter's exhortation, 1 Pe 5:6.
With places unalike and differing or seeming contrary in appearance
3) The last kind is with place unalike, which show themselves seeming to disagree from the place in hand, when they be compared together and thus unlikeness is either in words or manner of speaking, as Ro 3:28, Lam 2:24, so 1 Kg 9:28, 2 Chr 8:18 and Zc 4;13, Mt 27:9 where the prophecy is ascribed to Jeremiah, or else disagree in the meaning, as Ac 7:16, Gn 48:22.
But here note that discord is not in Scripture, neither is one place contrary to another, albeit through our ignorance it seem so to us; but it is not so indeed. For in a contradiction, there must be two places having the same words in meaning, understood of one and the same thing or subject matter the same reason and end intended in one respect and manner of doing at the same time.


Contemporaries 6

Robert Balsom (d 1647)

Benjamin Brook described Balsom as a 'pious and very courageous puritan divine'. He was born at Shepton Montague, Somerset, 5 or 6 miles south of Batcombe. He was educated at New Inn Hall, Oxford, from where he went to become an assistant to Richard Bernard. On Bernard's death he moved to Stoke (Trister?), a village in the same area.
After two years there with some success, owing to the civil war he was obliged to flee for safety to Wardour Castle [see pic], just over the border in Wiltshire. A short while later it was besieged by Royalists. At the solicitation of Colonel Ludlow, Balsom remained during the siege. Upon its capitulation, walking on the roof of the castle, Balsom overheard three soldiers talk about killing the minister. They spoke of him as some sort of wizard working against their cause. When the treaty was concluded, the enemy entered and Balsom was shut up in close confinement with a soldier who was hanged the next morning. At midnight the key of the prison was put into the hands of his intended assassins, who entered the room, and (removing their hats) stood at a distance, apparently doubtful and undetermined, but saying nothing. Balsom, recognising them and strongly suspecting their design, asked them their business. With great agitation, one confessed their plan but promised to do him no harm. They then urged him to make his escape, offering him all the assistance in their power. Suspecting they might have some other evil design, he refused. Even after they had convinced him of their integrity, he still refused, saying he would rather endure all that God would permit than let them hazard their lives. And so, to testify their esteem and their integrity, they conducted him into the fresh air and, having cleared his room, he departed.
A council was called the next morning to consider how to dispose of the prisoner. While they were debating this at least one man defended Baklsom and dissocaited himself from any plans to have him killed. Balsom was taken to Salisbury, where, that same night, another council was summoned. They sentenced him to be hanged. The sheriff of the county waited on him in prison, and, after much abusive language, told him to prepare for execution the next morning, assuring him, however, that provided he would ask the king's pardon and show himself loyal, he would not only be pardoned but might have almost any preferment he might want. Balsom baulked at the idea of seeking pardon when he was conscious of no offence. So he headed for the gibbet but just before the wicked deed was done a reprieve suddenly arrived from Sir Ralph Hopton. Balsom was taken to him in Winchester. There Sir William Ogle, the governor, told Balsom he would feed him on bread and water two or three days then have you hanged but being brought before Hopton, after some conversation about his espousing the parliamentary cause and the principles on which he had acted, he was committed to prison, with the charge, 'Keep this man safe; but use him well.' Balsom was eventually taken to Oxford. Despite imprisonment he preached twice daily and many came to him. After having been once or twice prohibited, he told them, that if they were weary of him and did not wish to be longer troubled with him, they might turn him out of doors whenever they liked. As long as he had a tongue to speak, and people to hear, he would not hold his peace.
At length, an exchange of prisoners led to his being set free and he became chaplain to the Earl of Essex. He later settled at Berwick (Bassett?), where he often preached and took forward the work of reformation. He was also involved to some extent with exorcisms, which brought him to public attention. On a visit to his home county in 1647 he suddenly took ill and died.


Faithful Shepherd 7A

Of the annotations and interpretation of the words
After the division of the text must follow an explanation of the simple words or of words joined together, evidently making a sentence. Yet this is not to be done at once throughout the text, but in order, as the words or the sentences come up in the different parts of the division. This will prevent tediousness and tautologies.
What is to be explained and what not
If the words be but two or three together or but one brief sentence then as necessity requireth they may be explained at once, then a paraphrase made thereon, brief and plain. This is not to be done where the words are plain, without any obscurity in them. For every Scripture is either set down plainly and the words are to be taken properly as they lie in the letter (thus is every doctrine of Faith and manners necessary to salvation set down) which needs no explication of words but only enlarging of the matter, or else obscurely, and thus needs exposition.
How Scripture becomes obscure and wherein the obscurity lies
No Scripture is in itself obscure. Rather, we lack eyesight to behold what is contained therein. The sun is ever clear though we through our blindness cannot see that shining or because some dark clouds hinder our sight, which are to be removed that we may look on it.
The clouds obscuring the clear light of the Scripture in the words or sentences are these. If we can expel them, the matter in every text will become manifest.
1. Sometimes variety of reading. In certain Hebrew texts and Greek passages, through ignorance or negligence, copyists have allowed things to creep in. Still, do not consider every example to be a malicious, corrupt Jewish text for impious papists to seize on.
2. Variety of meaning of words. One word can mean many things (homonyms). Many words can mean one thing (synonyms). Also, when words are somewhat alike as if they were synonyms and yet differ.
3. Ignorance of the proper meaning of the word for want of understanding in the original languages. Also, of the phrasing and correctness of that speech.
4. Defects and errors in translations. By adding or omitting, altering, misplacing or mispointing as to comma, colon, parenthesis, period or interrogation mark.
5. Diversity of opinion among interpreters.
6. Examples of contradictory speeches.
7. Want of knowledge of the arts, history, philosophy, antiquities, closely couched in many a text of Scripture.
8. Lastly, ignorance of points of divinity and of such things whereof Scripture speaketh proper to itself, of God, of Christ Jesus, of the Law and the Gospel and of the sacraments.
As many of these as the text is obscured by and justly therefore needeth an exposition must be made plain, both to clear what is dark and to resolve the hearer's thinking with regard to what may be doubtful.
Words may thus be explained:
1. By setting down a more usual word for an unusual one, a proper word for a figurative one.
2. A more plain one for one more obscure by a grammatical synonymy.
3. By a nominal definition.
4. By distinguishing doubtful words from one another and interpreting diversity of meaning according to the subject matter there handled or else, as one saith, if a word does not receive close attention its true sense is lost.
5. By observing our own common use of such words and manner of speaking, how and why we so speak.
For translations, bring them to the original text and by that try them and see the emphasis of the words, the manner of speaking and the grammatical constructions. Reconcile what seems to jar and clear the same from false interpretations.
One true and natural sense in every place and so one right exposition
There is but one true and natural sense of every place, which is the literal sense, that which the Holy Ghost principally intended there and accordingly can can there be given but one true and right interpretation of the words and sentence. A godly meaning (sensus pius) may be made of the same, agreeing with the analogy of faith, tending to God's glory, the suppression of vice and maintenance of virtue and so tolerable. But the proper sense and genuine interpretation is that which makes the place to agree to the chief purpose and scope of the Holy Ghost intended in that same place of Scripture (genuinus sensus).



This is the Priory Church in Worksop, Nottinghamshire




Faithful Shepherd 6B

Another example Matt 10:4
These be the words of our Saviour Christ in his commission given to his disciples. He commanded them to preach and to go hither and thither, and yet without concern for corporal provision. Intimating also to them that all should not receive them, he, foreknowing man’s thoughts, who upon hearing of enemies would be somewhat discouraged, he here prevents an objection or answers closely that question which they might make concerning their behaviour to the obstinate and what shall befall them. All of which is to encourage the disciples and their ministry. The parts whereof are two in general, a combination and a commandment.

1. In the threat
1. The parties threatened. Whosoever, the persons, and after the place, the house or city.
2. Why, for two offences, not receiving the disciples and for not hearing their words.
3. The certainty of the threatening confirmed to his disciples, truly I say to you.
4. What is threatened, to wit, their certain damnation and impossibility to be saved, delivered in a comparative speech, it shall be easier.
5. The time when this shall be effected, in the day of judgement.
2. In the commandment.
1. The time, when they depart.
2. Who, the disciples, all of them.
3. What to do, shake off the dust of their feet.
Thus may we do with any Scripture, if we can but know the general, how to name it and lay it open by circumstances, even as the words lie in order. This manner of dividing will afford much matter, easy for the method and descend to the capacity of the simplest hearer. But here is no small cunning required to gather out lessons from every circumstance fitly, yet easy to anyone that understands and hath laboured herein, as shall be after demonstrated by example.
If it be held too great a curiosity so distinctly to note every word, as it were, and circumstance, then the general division only may be observed and one or more of the words followed, passing from one to another briefly at his pleasure. The way is all one – this more easy and less distinct to the understanding in particulars, the other more hard and subject to the censure of a mean hearer, any whit exercised in the word, who more easily judgeth and seeth the collections of doctrines and how it is followed and when the preacher keeps or roves from the present matter.
How to divide in another manner, in show more learned
If this way be not liked, instead of this dividing and for general heads one, two or three propositions may be gathered and as parts followed every proposition containing the substance of the circumstances in the general part.
As for example, to declare my meaning, Acts 10:33
The words are part of Cornelius’ answer and contain in them three parts.
1. Cornelius’ obedience in these words, therefore sent I for thee immediately. Wherein we note these circumstances
1. The cause, in therefore
2. The things done, in sent
3. Who, in I, that is Cornelius
4. For whom
5. When
2. Cornelius encouraging and commending of Peter. Wherein note
1. Who and whom
2. For what
3. Cornelius’ readiness, in the last words, where observe
1. When 2. The cause 3. The parties 4. The place 5. The manner 6. The end 7. What
These three propositions contain plainly these several circumstances knit up together as doctrines.
These three parts thus set forth by circumstances may be drawn into three propositions and instead of this dividing the teacher may say ‘We will in these words (after he hath read the verse) handle and speak of three things’
1. That the commandment of God must make him to whom it is given to obey the same without delay.
2. That those which send for God’s messengers should openly encourage them by commending their willingness in coming.
3. That hearers knowing of their coming should make themselves ready, wait for them, submitting themselves with reverence to hear whatsoever they shall teach them from the Lord.
These propositions may be proved and followed in the same order to a man’s self, as the circumstances should be but yet in a different presentation to the auditory – the other being delivered plainly and in a disjointed speaking, handling every circumstance by itself. But this way largely set forth with a continued speech, to the end of every proposition. The other easy to be conceived by the hearer and be delivered of the speaker, requiring neither singular memory nor much liberty of speech. And therefore to tickling ears a harsher way, though for all sorts more profitable. This other way not so easy nor so evident, hardlier to be understood by the simpler sort and more difficult to be performed by the Preacher, except he have a good memory to help well his understanding and also a ready tongue, freely unfolding without stop the conceits of the mind. Choose either according to your gifts but do all to edification.
What use is made of logic, an art most necessary for a minister
Here is required in the teacher skill in the art of logic, a special handmaid by the assistance of God's Spirit, to serve for great use in reading the Scriptures, in interpreting and laying them open unto others. By logic we see the method of the Spirit, we behold the arguments, the coherence and the scope. By it we collect doctrines, confirm and enlarge the proofs, gather thence consequently apt uses and urge them by reasons upon the hearers. Without this a teacher can never soundly lay open the Scriptures, solidly prosecute any any matter nor pithily persuade nor firmly establish a truth nor judge of consequents nor convince and adversary well nor answer warily man's subtleties nor wittily prevent cavilling sophistry. A man's oration without logic is but found of words without reason, an ignorant discourse in which if the tongue be slight and memory weak, as the hearer shall oft lose the drift of his words, so he shall not seldom forget himself by over running both his won and other men's wits.
Let logic be then the stern to guide the course of thy speeches, that the sudden blasts of affections overwhelm thee not, if thou intend to speak judicially.